Abu Uthman ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Basri, also known as, Al-Jahiz, was born in the caliphate (Islamic State) of Basra, Iraq in 778. It is said that he was born with an unquenchable thirst for knowledge despite his family being poor. The name Al-Jahiz translates to “The Goggle-Eyed”, a name that was given to him because his eyes were larger than normal. According to scholars and testimonials of family members, physically, he was described as a dark skin man, the grandson of a black cameleer. Not much is known about his early life, but information suggest that he would sell fish to help his family earn income, when he wasn’t soaking up knowledge from reading or attending lectures. Al-Jahiz and other youth of the day would gather at the main Mosque of Basra and discuss several topics to seek as much understanding as possible. In addition to the gatherings at the Mosque, he would attend various lectures on several scientific topics; zoology, language, philosophy and writing were the topics that interested Al-Jahiz the most. He consumed information as if his appetite could never be satisfied over a twenty-five year period, helping to set the foundation for a man who is considered the greatest of the Arabic writers.
Writing would change Al-Jahiz’s life and help him earn his place in history. He began his career as a writer after he wrote an article about the Caliphate of Basra; the massive amounts of knowledge he obtained over the years helped him become a very knowledgeable writer. Over his lifetime, Al-Jahiz wrote over two-hundred books covering subjects such as zoology, poetry, philosophy, lexicography, rhetoric, etc. Al-Jahiz was a person who would be considered a genius and ahead of their time; he suggested that the Arabic grammatical system become overhauled two-hundred years before it was actually overhauled by Ibn Mada. In 816 AD, Al-Jahiz moved to Baghdad along with many other scholars due to the encouragement of the Abbasid Caliphate Dynasty; the Caliphate wanted to expand the popularity of his library, the “House of Wisdom”. Al-Jahiz was considered to be a very knowledgeable person and a very capable teacher. His reputation was so respected that Caliph Al-Ma’Mun wanted him to teach his children. Unfortunately, the Caliph’s children were afraid of Al-Jahiz’s eyes and he did not teach the children.
Of the two-hundred books written by AL-Jahiz, only thirty have survived the years. His most famous book is the Kitab al-Hayawan or Book of Animals. This book is the reason Al-Jahiz his considered “The Father of The Theory of Evolution”. The Book of Animals is seven volumes of anecdotes and descriptions of over 350 animals; Al-Jahiz was studying evolution and natural selection before Charles Darwin. Al-Jahiz’s book Kitab al-Bukhala or the Book of Misers is where he showed his prose style of writing, a style that influenced modern Arabic writing. Book of Misers is one of the reasons Al-Jahiz is considered one of the greatest Arabic prose writers in history. The Book of eloquence and Demonstration and On the Zanj are two other popular books that Al-Jahiz wrote and survived the times. After living in Baghdad for a considerable amount of time, Al-Jahiz moved back to his hometown of Basra before he died between 868 and 869 AD. A lifelong scholar turned writer would not only influence the Abbasid Caliphate Dynasty, but he influenced the Arabic world and beyond. He became the “Father of The Theory of Evolution” just because he had a love for zoology, writing and teaching. He is a giant within the Arabic world and an unknown influence to the rest of the world, until now. Abu Uthman ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Basri aka Al-Jahiz, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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Roders, J.A. (1946). World’s Great Men Of Color Volume 1 New York, New York: Simon & Schuster
Francis Nwia-Kofi Ngonloma was born on September 21, 1909, in Nkroful, Ghana, to parents Kofi Ngonloma and Elizabeth Nyanibah. As a young boy Nkrumah had a love for education, a passion that would help him excel in school. He received an early education attending mission schools in Accra, Ghana before completing his grade school education at the Prince of Wales’ Achimota School in Accra, Ghana. Nkrumah graduated from Achimota in 1930 and worked as a teacher until 1935, during this time he was introduced to ideas of Black Nationalism, liberation and anti-colonialism. 1935 was also the year that Nkrumah left Ghana for the United States to earn a college education. He would attend the historically black institution Lincoln University located in Oxford, Pennsylvania. Nkrumah earned his Bachelor of Arts in Economics in 1939 and his Bachelor of Theology in 1942 as a Lincoln University student. Following his time at Lincoln, he enrolled into the University of Pennsylvania where he earned a Masters of Philosophy and a Masters of Education by 1943.
During Nkrumah’s time as a college student, he experienced the rise of black consciousness in America through Garveyism, Black Nationalism, Pan-Africanism and the African American response to the Jim Crow laws. Nkrumah was a co-founder of the African Students Association of America and Canada, helped to create of the West African Student’s Union, and played an important role in organizing the 5th Pan-Africanist Congress. As a believer in a united black Africa, Nkrumah often convened with various black thinkers, educators, leaders and idealist throughout the African diaspora, trading ideas and learning new information about liberation. In May of 1945, Nkrumah left the United States for London, England where he studied as a PhD. student at the London School of Economics; later in 1945, Francis Nwia-Kofi Ngonloma officially changed his name to Kwame Nkrumah. He did not complete his studies to earn his PhD. because he was embarking on a mission much greater. Even though he left his formal educational setting he never stopped learning, he became well versed in politics, organizing, leadership, nation building, etc.
In 1947, Nkrumah returned to Ghana as an intellectual, political and tactical weapon his people could use to liberate themselves. Before his return to his homeland Nkrumah earned a reputation around the world as fierce force fighting for freedom, justice and equality for black people. Nkrumah was well equipped to contend with white supremacy. After returning to Ghana, he became the general secretary of the United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC), an organization that created strategies to help gain their independence from England. As a member of the UGCC Nkrumah directly challenged British rule and their oppressive laws against the people of Ghana; Nkrumah and the UGCC were awakening a fire of freedom in the people of Ghana. By 1949, Nkrumah and the UGCC parted ways due to differences in philosophies, he then created his own Convention People's Party (CPP). Under the banner of the CPP Nkrumah and the people were putting immense pressure on the British who ruled Ghana.
The Nkrumah led CPP lobbied for self-government, universal franchise, a separate house of chiefs, and many more constitutional changes. Nkrumah’s ideas and organization was not welcomed by the British, he was imprisoned for his political activities and given a sentence of three years. During his incarceration the CPP continued to challenge British politics by protesting and also winning the 1951 political elections. With members of the CPP making political decisions, Nkrumah did not have to serve his full three year sentence. In 1952, the political landscape of Ghana changed when Nkrumah was elected as Prime Minister; his presence meant that the British could not influence the leaders of Ghana. A five year plan was created to rid the Gold Cost of British rule and to strengthen their mission by working together with their fellow African countries. In 1957, Ghana officially gained its independence from the British due to the efforts of the CPP and Kwame Nkrumah. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr befriended Nkrumah and the two shared philosophies during King’s visit to Ghana in 1957. Both men admired many aspects of the other and were able to grow as leaders within their respective countries.
The New Republic of Africa was formed three years into Nkrumah’s tenure as Prime Minister of Ghana. With ideas of African unity rooted in Pan-Africanism and Black Nationalism, Nkrumah created alliances with as many of his neighboring countries as he could. In 1963, the Organization of African Unity was formed with the goal of creating a league of African states, a collective that would improve the conditions for as many African people as possible; later in 1963, Nkrumah was awarded the International Lenin Peace Prize by the Soviet Union for strengthening peace among their comrades. By 1966, what is described as economic and political instability was present within Ghana and the CPP led government.
Nkrumah and the CPP were overthrown by a Joseph Ankrah led coup d’état in 1966, driving Nkrumah and his family into exile. Sekou Tuore offered Nkrumah refuge in Conakry, Guinea as a friend and as a means to continue their mission of African liberation and unity. Nkrumah died of cancer in 1972 in Bucharest, Romania as an African leader who has his imprint on history. Fueled by his basic human right to be free and receive equal treatment, Nkrumah and the CPP led Ghana to their independence from the British and helped inspire other African nations to seek their independence. He was not only an inspiration to people on the continent of Africa but he inspired African people around the world. Francis Nwia-Kofi Ngonloma aka Kwame Nkrumah, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
J. A. Ward
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On April 4, 1928, Marguerite Annie Johnson was born to parents Bailey and Vivian Johnson in St. Louis, Missouri; Angelou was nicknamed "Maya" by her older brother Bailey Jr. As a three-year-old Maya and Bailey Jr moved to Stamps, Arkansas to live with their grandmother because their parents divorced. Their grandmother’s financial situation was more favorable than their parents because she owned a general store and could provide them with what they needed. An eight-year-old Angelou was raped by her mother's boyfriend while visiting her mother in St. Louis, Missouri. Eight-year-old Angelou testified against the man that raped her, as a result, a number of her uncles caught the man and beat him to death. Too young to fully understand why the man was beaten to death, young Angelou felt his death was her fault and did not speak a word for five years. During her high school years, she would attend schools in both Arkansas and California before she dropped out to become the first black woman streetcar conductor in San Francisco, California. She eventually re-enrolled into high school and graduated at the age of seventeen, three weeks later she gave birth to her only son.
Angelou would marry a Greek man named Tosh Angelos who was an electrician, once worked as a sailor and aspired to become a full-time musician. Angelou’s marriage to Tosh Angelos lasted only a few years before the couple divorced. Angelou would continue pursuing dance and even found herself a contemporary and dance student with the legendary Alvin Ailey. They grew a friendship that led to the two forming a dance pair called “Alvin & Rita” which performed for collegiate black Greek organizations. At the time Angelou lived in San Francisco, she remarried before moving to New York to study African dance under Pearl Primus, a notable Trinidadian dancer, a year later Angelou and her family moved back to San Francisco. Angelou was laying the foundation as a dancer and singer to one of the most extraordinary and influential careers a person could have. In 1954, Angelou divorced her second husband but found work as a Calypso dancer and singer in the Purple Onion nightclub. Following a suggestion by the owners of the Purple Onion, Angelou created her stage name "Maya Angelou" to use as a performer rather than her birth name. The uniqueness of her name helped her stand out from the other performers she was competing with.
Angelou was a very talented performer and even earned a role in the opera Porgy and Bess which allowed her to travel the world. The opera appeared in twenty-two countries exposing Angelou to a plethora of opportunities her career can offer. While visiting the various countries Angelou had a goal of learning as many languages as she could, as a result, she learned a number of different languages and cultures. In 1957, she recorded her first album as a singer titled Miss Calypso, following her success as a calypso singer and dancer. Angelou was finding success early as a performer, she appeared in plays on Broadway and through other vehicles, one play she appeared in was the inspiration behind the 1957 film Calypso Heat Wave, Angelou was the composer of the songs she sang in the film. She also acted in the play Cabaret for Freedom which she co-wrote with a man named Godfrey Cambridge.
In 1959, Angelou was inspired to become an author and even joined the Harlem Writers Guild where she learned from some of America’s most prolific authors; the incredible historian Dr. John Henrick Clarke was one of the writers Angelou learned from. The inspiration from the writers guild helped her become published within newspapers such as The Arab Observer and The Ghanaian Times, she also appeared on the Ghanaian Broadcasting Corporation programming which was produced in Accra, Ghana. While living in Ghana, Angelou became a feature editor for the African Review from 1964 to 1968, she also worked as an assistant administrator for the School of Music and Drama at the University of Ghana. After being inspired by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr, she became the Northern Coordinator for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Angelou would also work with Malcolm X to build his Organization of African American Unity until his untimely death.
In 1968, Angelou wrote, produced and narrated a ten-part documentary titled Blacks, Blues, Black!, which helped connect the Blues to the black people who created the music and the conditions they lived in. In 1969, Angelou published her first book “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings” which is a memoir of her early life. The book was a major success and led to her having a plethora of opportunities as a writer, performer, speaker, etc. She would write a number of books that told her story from various stages of her life; Gather Together in My Name, Singin' and Swingin' and Gettin' Merry Like Christmas, The Heart of a Woman, All God's Children Need Traveling Shoes, A Song Flung Up to Heaven, and Mom & Me & Mom are the names of the books. She wrote around thirteen poetry books, And Still I Rise is her most-well known poetry book.
Angelou wrote the screenplay Georgia, Georgia in 1972 which was produced by a Swedish film company, she also wrote the soundtrack for the screenplay. In 1970, she was nominated for the National Book Award, nominated for a Pulitzer Prize in 1972, two Tony Award nominations in 1973, one Tony Award nomination in 1977, and she received the North Carolina Award in Literature in 1987. She was named Woman of the Year in communications by Ladies' Home Journal in 1976 and regarded as one of the most influential women by the Ladies' Home Journal in 1983. As a writer, she produced scripts for television shows Sister, Sister and Brewster’s Place. She wrote and produced her full-length film Sister, Sister before directing her first movie Down in the Delta in 1998.
Later in 1998, Angelou was inducted into the Women’s Hall of Fame, in the year 2000 she was awarded the National Medal of Arts, eight years later she received the Lincoln Medal. In 2014, Maya Angelou died as a legend that will never be forgotten. Her contributions to writing, music, film, television and public speaking are still felt to this day. Her historic poem And Still I Rise has inspired black women to become the greatest versions of themselves for decades. Angelou was a multi-talented blessing to black America and the world as a whole. Miss. Marguerite Annie Johnson, also known as Maya Angelou, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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Born on the Gold Coast of Africa in modern-day Accra, Ghana, in 1944, to parents Dr. George Busby and Sarah Busby, Margaret Yvonne Busby would become a literary pioneer for the United Kingdom’s black community. She attended high school in Sussex County until the age of fifteen before continuing her education at Bedford College at London University. Her concentration was English and journalism, she became the editor of her college’s magazine and graduated with an Honors Bachelor’s degree as a twenty year old. As a college student she met a man named Clive Allison who she would partner with to make history.
As a college graduate Busby would search for and find work at the Cresset Press, a London based independent publishing company. While working for the Cresset Press, Busby and Clive Allison were creating Allison & busby, their groundbreaking independent publishing company. Allison & busby officially opened for business in 1967, the company’s first three published books were The Spook Who Sat By The Door by Sam Greenlee, Behold the Man and The Final Programme by Michael Moorcock, all three books were published in 1969. Busby served as the editorial director for Allison & Busby from 1967 until 1987. During her time the company published books from authors such as H. Rap Brown, C.L.R. James, Ralph de Boissière, Rosa Guy, and many more. At the time of the founding of Allison & Busby Margaret Busby became the youngest person and the first black woman in the United Kingdom to found her own publishing company.
Busby did serve as the editorial director of the publishing company Earthscan for a short period of time, after working for Earthscan she would work as a freelance editor and writer. As an Earthscan employee she published books for Frantz Fanon, Han Suyin, Carolina Maria de Jesus and many others. Busby’s writing career wasn’t confined to editing; as a journalist she wrote for specialist journals, The Observer, The Independent, The Sunday Times, New Statesmen and The Guardian. When Busby wrote for The Guardian she was in charge of writing book reviews and obituaries for known or respected artist and social activist. In addition to writing, during the 1960s, Busby begin her career in television and radio, London Line, Break For Women and Talking Africa are some of the programs she appeared on. She was sought after to appear on a plethora of television and radio programs as her popularity increased. Radio broadcast would often invite her on their programs to entertain their audiences with various dramatizations based off of novels. In 1999, her dramatization of the novel Minty Alley by author C.L.R. James won the “Race In The Media Award” presented by the Commission for Racial Equality.
Busby used her immensely talented writing skills to write celebrated stage plays such as Sankofa, Yaa Asantewaa – Warrior Queen and An African Cargo. She was trusted with writing the logistics for the 2014 Maya Angelou: A Celebration tribute, held at the London Literature Festival. In 1992, she published her book Daughters of Africa: An International Anthology of Words and Writings by Women of African Descent, a groundbreaking book that gave insight into the plight and the triumphs of women of African descent. During the 1980s, Busby was a founding member of Greater Access to Publishing, an organization who fought for more black representation in the publishing world. As a member of the Independent Black Publishers she has represented blacks working in the publishing world for over three decades. She was named one of eight black women whose contributions have helped with the development of Britain by The Voice newspaper in 2018. The newspaper Evening Standard named Busby as one of their fourteen inspirational black British women throughout history. Her pioneering work was recognized during the Rights for Women: London’s Pioneers in their Own Words exhibition in 2018.
Busby won the Society of Young Publishers Award in 1970, became an Honorary Member of the Alpha Kappa Alpha International Region in 1998, was given the Ghanaian traditional honor as Nana Akua Ackon in 1999, received the Officer of the Order of the British Empire for her services to Literature and to Publishing in 2006, received the UK African Heritage High Achievers Recognition Award and many more awards. She decided that she would use her voice and her pen to help make the world a better place. She was creative and brave enough to found a publishing company that still exist to this day. In the process of following her dreams, Margaret Busby managed to change the publishing industry in the United Kingdom. Black women are one of the main reasons many industries in this world are able to continue to thrive. Margaret Yvonne Busby, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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On November 30, 1912, Gordon Rodger Alexander Buchanan Parks was born in Fort Scott, Kansas, to parents Andrew Jackson Parks and Sarah Ross. Andrew Jackson Parks was a farmer who supported his family though they lived in humble conditions; Gordon Parks was the youngest of his parent’s fifteen children. The Jim Crow laws ruled America at the time so Gordon and his family faced racism on a regular basis. As a child he attended segregated schools which denied black students the opportunity to play sports and attend school functions. The white teachers often tried to discourage the black students from going to college or pursuing professions that was outside of serving servitude. At the age of eleven, Parks was assaulted and threw into the Marmaton River by three white boys, they knew he couldn’t swim and hoped he drowned. Gordon had the presence of mind to use the water to screen himself from the white boys and make it safely to land.
Gordon’s mother Sarah Ross died when he was fourteen years old, twelve months later Gordon went to live with his sister named Maggie Lee and her husband in Minneapolis -Saint Paul, Minnesota. Maggie Lee’s husband was not fond of Gordon living with them and later kicked him out of their home. Gordon was forced to make a living for himself as a fifteen year old in a Jim Crow America; he did enroll himself into Central High School to further his education, but later dropped out to make a living for himself. He worked a number of jobs to help himself such as, working in a brothel, working as a bus boy, a piano player, water, semi-pro sports, and other odd jobs. Parks could write music and was overheard playing one of his songs on a piano by a Jazz band leader, the two became acquainted and the Jazz band was performing Parks’ song on the radio, shortly after Parks was a singer in the band.
In 1933, Parks married his first wife Sally Alvis and supported his family as a singer in the Jazz band. Parks’ time with the band did not last long as it disbanded in New York City, Parks needed to be able to support his family so he begin working with the New Deal Civilian Conservation Corps clearing forest land in New Jersey. Parks and his family eventually moved back to in Minneapolis -Saint Paul, Minnesota and Parks begin working on the Northern Pacific Railroad as a train porter in 1937. While working on the Northern Pacific Railroad trains, he would see magazines that were filled with photographs of migrant workers and was inspired to become a photographer. He was twenty-five years old when he brought his first camera and began teaching himself to become a professional photographer. From the beginning, Parks had a gift for photography; during the development of his first roll of film he was praised for his work and encouraged to look for photography work at a women’s clothing store. Marva Louis, the wife of legendary boxer Joe Louis was blown away by Parks’ work and pushed for Parks and his wife to move to Chicago to further his career.
In 1940, Parks begin his photography business in Chicago, which at the time specialized in photographs of notable women. Along with photographing notable women, Parks had a keen eye for capturing the black American experience; this led him to receiving the Julius Rosenwald Fellowship in 1941. The fellowship paid him two-hundred dollars a month and he was able to choose his employer. He was later asked to join the Farm Security Administration and help them capture the true conditions of America and its people; the project was led by a man named Roy Stryker. Parks and his family lived on the South Side of Chicago; his work as a freelance photographer helped him gain the Farm Security Administration fellowship. Parks gained recognition for his legendary photograph titled American Gothic, Washington, D.C., which was a black adaptation of the American Gothic painting by Grant Wood of the white farmer and his wife. Parks’ photograph depicted a black woman named Ella Watson who worked as a janitor for the Farm Security Administration. The photograph is showing Ella Watson standing in front of the American flag, holding a broom in her right hand, with a mop in the background behind her left shoulder. The photograph was showing the segregation and racism that was very prevalent in America.
The Farm Security Administration eventually disbanded while Parks was in Washington D.C., because of the opportunities he remained in Washington D.C. and became a photographer for the Office of War Information, photographing the all-black 332nd Fighter Group. Parks and Roy Stryker connected again and Parks became the photographer for the Standard Oil Photography Project located in New Jersey. Parks’ most memorable photos were Dinner Time at Mr. Hercules Brown's Home, Somerville, Maine, Grease Plant Worker, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Car Loaded with Furniture on Highway, Self Portrait, and Ferry Commuters, Staten Island, N.Y. In 1948, Parks was able to publish his first photo essay in Life Magazine, making him the first African-American photographer for Life magazine. Parks noticed that Life’s descriptions of his photos did not describe what he was photographing so he insisted on writing the descriptions for his photos. From 1950 to 1951, Parks was working in Paris for Life Magazine’s Paris bureau after showing his adaptability as a photographer to Wilson Hicks, the editor of Life magazine at the time. He was able to move throughout Europe photographing people from all walks of life.
Back in America, Parks was able to capture pictures of the Civil Rights movement and black leaders from Malcolm X to Stokely Charmichael. His talent was on full display around the world and was capturing photos of many well-known artist and celebrities. Parks also worked in the film industry as a director and consultant; some of his movies include The Learning Tree, Shaft, Shaft's Big Score, a biopic of the blues musician Huddie Ledbetter, and a number of other films. Parks was an ultra-talented person; he published fifteen books and even dabbled as a painter. He died in 2006 as a result of liver cancer, leaving behind a long list of works that changed the Photography industry, the world of art and, inspired generations of artist. He and his first wife Sally Alvis divorced in 1961, he then married Elizabeth Campbell in 1962, the couple divorced in 1973 before he married his third wife Genevieve Young. Parks was an amazing man with a great eye to be able to capture the true existence of black America through his photography. He was an artist that other artist admired, he used his talents to show what was really happening to black Americans and the people considered the upper echelon of their society. He believed in himself despite being told he was only good enough to serve white people, when he was a child. Mr. Gordon Rodger Alexander Buchanan Parks, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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On October 24, 1958, Nokugcina Elsie Mhlophe was born in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa, her mother was of Xhosa origin and her father was of Zulu origin. In 1979, she enrolled in the Mfundisweni High School where she found her love for writing, theater and creating. After high school, she enrolled in Rhodes University located in Grahamstown, South Africa, at the university Gcina partook in a cadet course for journalism. During her time in college, she also took part in a film making course as a community project with the Interchurch Media Program that lasted six months. Her career as a professional began as a domestic worker before she worked at the Press Trust as a newsreader. She also worked as a writer for Learn and Teach Magazine around 1983, as well as, working with BBC radio. Gcina was getting off to a good start as a journalist and writer.
Gcina was not only a journalist but she immersed herself within theater and performing which led to her becoming the lead actress in the 1983 play The Nurse. In 1984, she had a leading role in the workshop play titled The Black Dog. Joining the theater along with writing helped Gcina travel South Africa, throughout the African continent and the world. From 1985 to 1987, she wrote an autobiographical play which she also stared in titled Have You Seen Zandile; the play took her to the United States where it was performed in Chicago, Illinois and Knoxville, Tennessee. She was noted as a visiting director in conjunction with the Chicago Theatre Co. and at Knoxville’s Carpet Bag Theatre. Gcina was inspired to use her writings and her voice to tell her stories by an Imbongi, or a Xhosa Praise Poet; this was a title that was traditionally held by men. She also received support to move forward as a play writer and performer by an African poetry legend named Mannie Manim, who was the director of the Market Theatre located in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Her travels allowed her to learn to speak five different languages, Zulu, Xhosa, English, Afrikaans and Sotho. Because of her travels, popularity and work ethic, her works were translated into German, French, Italian, Swahili and Japanese. She not only traveled to perform in plays and for journalism Purposes, she held storytelling workshops for the people of the cities she visited. This was a long journey from performing for black-only audiences in South Africa hoping an audience would show up. Between 1987 and 1998, Gcina performed in and or directed several plays such as, Inyanga, Somdaka, The Good Person Of Sechuan, and Love Child, which gave her an opportunity to perform in Japan. She received four theater awards from 1987 to 1988; she also performed in at least ten television shows and movies from 1986 to 2007. She was either fully responsible for or a part of twenty-eight publications. She has received over twelve awards for writing, publishing books and storytelling.
With a career that spans over thirty years; Gcina is not only noted for her excellence as a writer, director, performer and storyteller, she also made a name for herself as a South African anti-apartheid activist. She found a way to be successful in an industry that was male dominated, because her light could not be dimmed. She traveled the world, told the stories in her heart and was a part of the storytelling of other authors. She gave her time to her people through theater, storytelling and writing, as well as, used her voice and platform to fight apartheid and white supremacy. She inspired women all over the world to believe in themselves and their abilities. Her legend is cemented but her work is not over; she was last known as the patron of the International Association for Theatre for Children and Young People. Ms. Nokugcina Elsie Mhlophe, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
J. A. Ward
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In 1964, the Deacons for Defense and Justice were formed by black men in Jonesboro, Louisiana to protect the black citizens and civil rights activist from the Ku Klux Klan. Armed self-defense was inconsistent with the non-violent philosophy adopted during the civil rights movement. Two military veterans named Earnest “Chilly Willy” Thomas and Frederick Douglass Kirkpatrick were the original founders of the Deacon for Defense. The organization grew in popularity because it appealed to sections of the civil rights movement who no longer believed that non-violence was a sound strategy. Thomas and Douglas created an organization that would discourage Klan attacks, as well as, help prevent activist and black community members from police and fire hose attacks. The Deacons made headlines when their defensive activities forced then Louisiana Governor John McKeithen and Jonesboro city leaders to compromise with civil rights activist.
As the Deacons grew in numbers and popularity they begin to open chapters in different cities. In 1965, Thomas and Kirkpatrick established a second chapter of the Deacons for Defense and Justice in Bogalusa, Louisiana. After working with the black leaders in Bogalusa, Thomas and Kirkpatrick left the chapter under the leadership of Robert “Bob” Hicks, Charles Sims, and A. Z. Young; the Klan was attacking the blacks in Bogalusa so the people organized to defend themselves. The first black Deputy Sheriff of Washington Parish, Louisiana was assassinated by racist whites; the murder increased the tension between the Klan and the Deacons. The tension grew so tough that federally regulated reconstruction-era laws were instituted to protect civil rights activist. In 1966, civil rights activist James Meridith was embarking on a march from Memphis, Tennessee to Jackson, Mississippi called the March Against Fear. Meridith was shot and severely wounded by white supremist, Stokely Carmichael and many other activists completed the march for Meridith but the idea of self-defense was more prominent.
Charmichael was instrumental in convincing Dr. Martin Luther King and other leaders that the Deacons can be integrated into the movement, provide protection and the unity of the movement would be maintained. By 1965, the Deacons were being investigated by J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI, COINTELPRO tactics were unleashed upon the Deacons enabling the FBI to obtain substantial information about the organization. Disloyal black FBI informants were feeding the FBI information about the activities the Deacons engaged in, these tactics helped members of the Deacons become continuously harassed, arrested and questioned by the FBI. As the years passed, other organizations emerged and began to overshadow the Deacons as far as public attention. The presence of the Black Panther Party took away much of the FBI attention that was usually reserved for the Deacons. By 1968, the Deacons disbanded but in their short time they made a huge impact.
The Deacons helped change the ideas and strategies of civil rights organizations and helped lay the foundation for organizations such as the Black Panther Party to exist. They understood that non-violence was a tactic that can be used, but non-violence is not always the best course of action. They often challenged the KKK and Louisiana police who were looking to harm black people. In all, the Deacons were able to organize twenty-one chapters and forty-six affiliate chapters across the country. Historian Lance Hill wrote the following about the Deacons; “the hard truth is that these organizations produced few victories in their local projects in the Deep South—if success is measured by the ability to force changes in local government policy and create self-governing and sustainable local organizations that could survive when the national organizations departed … The Deacons’ campaigns frequently resulted in substantial and unprecedented victories at the local level, producing real power and self-sustaining organizations.” The Deacons were not fully accepted when they were created, over time it was understood that they were not organized to incite violence but only to protect their people from white supremist. To the entire Deacons for Defense and Justice, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
Gina Maria Prince was born on June 10th, 1969, inNew York City, New York. At three weeks old she was adopted by Bob and MariaPrince, Bob was a computer programmer and Maria was a nurse. Gina was a child who grew up in a culturally diverse home, Bob was a white man and Maria was a woman of El Salvadorian and German ancestry. Gina’s birth mother was white and her father was a black man; Gina’s birth mother gave her up for adoption because her family didn’t want her to keep the baby. Growing up as one of five siblings in Pacific Grove, California she was interested in filmmaking as well as track and field. Gina graduated from Pacific Grove High School in 1987 then enrolled in UCLA’s film school while running track. Gina was an excellent student, her supreme skills as a film director earned her the Gene Reynolds Scholarship, and she went on to earn the Ray Stark Memorial Scholarship for OutstandingUndergraduates before graduating from UCLA in 1991.
Gina’s film career began in 1992 as a writer for the television show “A Different World,” three of the scripts she wrote for “ADifferent World” were aired as episodes of the television series. In 1994, she was a story editor and writer for the television show “South Central” before she became the story editor for “Sweet Justice” which was a courtroom drama series. In 1995, Gina began writing and co-producing for a television series titled “Courthouse” on the CBS network. Later in 1995, Gina made her television debut as a director with a CBS special titled “What About YourFriends?” which gave a new look into the lives of black teens growing up in America. The script was so successful that it opened the door for Gina to begin working on the television show “Felicity” as a consulting producer and a writer. All of the work Gina did over the years prepared her for her Hollywood debut that would inspire a generation of movie watchers and future moviemakers.
The film industry was put on notice at the 2000 SundanceFilm Festival when Gina debuted her first film “Love and Basketball”. The film was a cult classic and won twelve overall awards including best film and bestfilm poster at the Black Reel Awards, the film also won best first screenplay atthe Independent Spirit Awards. After the final numbers from the film weretotaled it was the ninth highest grossing basketball movie of all-time andearned over $27,728,000. Later in 2000, Gina directed the HBO movie”Disappearing Acts” starring Wesley Snipes and Sanaa Lathan, whichwas based on a novel by Terry McMillian. In 2003, she became a producer for themovie “Biker Boys” which went on to gross more than $25,000,000,later that year she wrote an episode for the television series “The BernieMac Show.” In 2005, she wrote episodes for the televisionshows “Everybody Hates Chris” and “Girlfriends”, before becoming a producer forthe documentary “Daddy’s Girl” in 2007.
In 2008, Gina wrote and directed the feature film “The Secret Life of Bees” which grossed over $42,000,000 in the US and Canada and won three awards. Expanding her career and her filmography she made another splash in Hollywood with the film “Beyond The Lights” in 2014 staring Nate Parker and Gugu Mbatha-Raw. She became a writer for the 2017 film “Before I Fall” and the 2018 film “Nappily Ever After.” Information suggests that Gina will be working on creating a film based off of the novel An Untamed State that was written by Roxane Gay. Gina met and married her husband Reggie “Rock” Bythewood who is a film writer, director and producer; the two met on the set of “A Different World.” In 2017, Gina and Reggie created a show for the Fox network titled Shots Fired. Gina Prince-Bythewood was either directly or partially responsible for movies and television shows that directly impacted children growing up in the 1990s and 2000s’. Films such as “Love And Basketball,” “Biker Boyz,” “The Secret Life of Bees,” and “Disappearing Acts” as well as television shows such as “A Different World,” “Everybody Hates Chris,” “Girlfriends” and “The Bernie Mac Show” literally helped to shape generations of children across cultural, racial, gender and economic lines. Mrs. Gina Prince-Bythewood literally was the voice of a generation and for that, we proudly stand on her shoulders.
Joseph Bologne, Chevalier de Saint-George was born on the island of Guadeloupe in the French West Indies, on December 25th, 1745. His father was a plantation owner, slaveholder, and nobleman named George de Bologne Saint-George, his mother was a Senegalese slave woman named Anne Nanon, she was the mistress of de Bolonge. de Bologne was particularly fond of Saint-George, he treated him and his mother better than he treated the other slaves he owned. Seeking a better life for his son, de Bologne moved Saint-George and Nanon to Paris, France along with his legitimate family in 1753. Upon Saint-George’s thirteenth birthday he was enrolled into France’s premier fencing boarding academy led by the legendary swordsman Nicolas Texier de La Böessière. Saint-George was a well-rounded student holding interest outside of fencing which included several sciences, literature and horseback riding. Within two years of enrolling into the fencing academy, Saint-George’s progress was fully noticed by La Böessière and everyone at the academy; he was tall, strong, fast and held an uncanny ability to learn quickly.
A Fencing-Master named Alexandre Picard decided he wanted to duel with Saint-George, Picard often publically called Saint-George La Böessière’s mulatto as an insult. The match was highly anticipated and highly attended; many people placed high wagers on the swordsman they favored to win. Saint-George would emerge victorious only adding to his legend as a master swordsman. His was rewarded for his victory by his father with a horse and buggy. He was truly one of Europe’s greatest swordsmen only suffering one defeat in his extraordinary fencing career. He graduated from the fencing boarding academy in 1766 earning the titles of Officer of the King’s Bodyguard and Chevalier (knight). Despite being the illegitimate son of a slave woman, Saint-George the “god of arms” was a well-respected fencer and horseback rider who’s future was about to shine brighter than he may have imagined. Music would be Saint-Georges new realm that he would soon conquer, the violin and the harpsichord (an early piano) would become his new weapons. It is believed Saint-George studied the violin with Jean-Marie Leclair-The Elder, a Baroque violinist, composer, and founder of the French violin school.
It was revealed that Saint-George was a violinist when he performed two concertos composed for him by violinist Antonio Lolli, and a set of François Gossec’s six string trios, Op.9. Saint-George’s musical talents indicated that he studied with great teachers but there is not enough information available to validate who the teachers were. In 1769, Saint-George became a violinist for the Le Concert des Amateurs orchestra which was directed by François Gossec. Saint-George was so good that he was the first violinist and eventually became the director of the orchestra succeeding Gossec. He was somewhat of a legendary figure in France because of his success as a fencer and violinist. His first compositions, Op. 1 a set of six string quartets were among the first quartets to be played in France. Saint-George was successful but he was still a mulatto and considered by some a second-class citizen. King Louis XVI opposed the abolition of slavery, interracial marriages were illegal and black people in France were looking for a change. Racial ignorance would rear its ugly head as Saint-George was denied the opportunity to become the director of the Paris Opera in 1775. It is believed that two of the opera’s leading soprano’s felt insulted by the notion of being led by a mulatto. Saint-George would compose six opera’s and several songs in manuscript between 1771 and 1779 along with many other pieces of music and opera.
There are claims that Saint-George was sometimes called the black Mozart and the black Don Juan because he was just as popular as Mozart. I do not have the information to confirm that he was considered the black Mozart, but we do know he was a musical legend. Race seemed to play a critical role in some of the most important or questionable situations Saint-George would face. In 1779, he and his friend were attacked by people believed to be policemen because of his relationship with Marie Antoinette. In 1781, Saint-George began composing and conducting music with his new group Concert de la Loge Olympique after the Concert des Amateurs stopped playing together. In 1787, he conducted one of six of the “Paris Symphonies” created by composer Franz Joseph Haydn. Saint-George’s ability to bounce back from adversity was uncanny; he wrote the opera’s The Girl-Boy and The Chestnut Seller, he also defeated the Chevalière d’Éon a French diplomat in a fencing exhibition.
He would spend time in England supporting the blacks in their anti-slavery movement; his actions were deemed as inappropriate and troublesome by British slave dealers and owners. While in London five men would attack Saint-George in retaliation to his anti-slavery work but his swordsmanship once again allowed him to fight off the attackers. He would go on to continue his anti-slavery work as well as create a French anti-slavery group called the Society of the Friends of Black People. He would also become France’s first black Free Mason reaching the 33rd degree. Injuries and age did not slow Saint-George down a bit, during the French Revolution he became captain of the National Guard. As France and Austria engaged in war Saint-George became the colonel of an all-black French legion which was often called the “Saint-George” Legion. The Saint-George led legion helped the French defeat Austria, he and his legion also helped to stop a French general from conspiring with Austria to defeat France.
Saint-George was publically condemned by Alexander Dumas, the father of the literary giant Alexander Dumas, due to Dumas’ allegiance to the revolutionary leader Robespierre. Saint-George spent a year in jail because of Robespierre but was released in 1794 because Robespierre was no longer in power. Saint-George witnessed the impact of French and Spanish colonization of the black people of the island of Santo Domingo; black people were fighting each other as enemies even though they are only separated by a river, languages and European ideas. His name as a composer was still drawing large crowds in France which led him to become the director of The Circle of Harmony orchestra. Saint-George would die in 1799 due to a bladder infection but was a legendary figure until the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. The African presence of France was erased for over two-hundred years because of Napoleon and his racist views of African people. Like here in America, France had a rediscovering of African history, culture, and art which helped the people of France become reintroduced to this historical titan. Joseph Bologne, Chevalier de Saint-George, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
On January 23, 1899, Ora Mae Washington was born in Caroline County, Virginia, to parents James and Laura O. Young-Washington. In 1912, her family moved to the Germantown area of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania looking for better working opportunities. For the first twenty-five years of her life, she was not seriously engaged in sports and never participated in an organized sport. Tragedy would striker her family when one of her sisters passed away; she struggled with grieving and sports was suggested as a means of therapy. Tennis was the original sport that Ora chose to play and she began her career at the Germantown YMCA. A year into playing tennis, she improved so much that she won her first national championship and entered a national tournament for black tennis players. Ora’s skills were on full display and she put the tennis world on notice that the reign on “The Queen of Tennis” was upon them. She became the dominant black tennis player of her era, winning the American Tennis Association’s national crown in 1929 and holding the crown until 1936. She was so much better than her opponents that she would go full seasons without losing a tennis match.
From the mid-1930’s through the early 1940’s Ora would win eight national singles crowns, twelve doubles crowns, and three mixed doubles crowns. She was the darling of the black sports world and was unknowingly inspiring future black tennis champions. Hellen Willis Moody was the best white female tennis player in the world at that time and Ora had her eyes on a match with Hellen. The Jim Crow era was alive and well in the United States and Ora’s tennis success did not shield her from the racism. Because Ora was a black woman Hellen refused to play her in a match to determine who the best female tennis player in America. Ora was disappointed but not deterred. She would continue to dominate tennis until the 1940’s. Unlike most female athletes of that era, Ora was not just a one sport woman, basketball was her second love.
The Germantown Hornets is the name of the team Ora played basketball for during the 1930’s and 1940’s. The Hornets were originally sponsored by the local YMCA before they became good enough to compete as a professional team. Ora helped lead her team to a 22-1 record and the female national championship. The Hornets followed up their national championship by winning thirty-three games in a row. What was unique about the Hornets is the team was composed of black women but they competed against black women’s teams, white women’s teams and, men’s teams; defeating them all. She would leave the Hornets and begin playing with the Philadelphia Tribune in 1932 as the team’s center and coach. The team was sponsored by a black-owned newspaper The Philadelphia Tribune which allowed it to travel across the country competing against a wide range of opponents. Not only was Ora the team’s best player but she was their leading scorer. The Tribune played any team that was not afraid to face them; Ora was considered the best black female basketball player in the world, she led her team to eleven consecutive championships demolishing their competition.
The 1940’s was the time period that Ora retired from playing both tennis and basketball; The “Queen of Tennis” set the basketball world on fire. To supplement the little pay she earned from tennis and basketball she worked as a domestic to make ends meet. After retiring from sports she became an entrepreneur, brought an apartment building, and secured herself financially for the rest of her life. She used her free time to hold tennis clinics for the Germantown youth to expose them to the sport. She was truly a titan within the sports world, over her career she won 201 championships from tennis and basketball but was virtually unknown outside of the black sports world. She would die in 1971 at the age of seventy-three as a pioneer in the world of women’s sports.
In 1976, she was inducted into the Black Athletes Hall of Fame for her accomplishments. In 1986, she was inducted into Temple University’s Sports Hall of Fame. And in 2009, she was inducted into the Women’s Basketball Hall of Fame. She is often forgotten but her impact on tennis and basketball is still felt today. She opened the tennis doors for future black players like Althea Gibson, Author Ashe, and the Williams sisters. Her dominance on the basketball court helped pave the way for black female basketball players such as Cheryl Miller, Lisa Lesley and Maya Moore. The WNBA is able to thrive today because she helped black women understand that not only can they play sports but they can dominate the sports. To the “Queen of Tennis” and women’s basketball legend Ora Mae Washington, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
On February 26th, 1943 a baby boy named Leighton Rhett Radford Howe was born in Moruga District, Trinidad, to parents Cipriani and Lucille Howe. Early in Howe’s academic career he attended the Queen’s Royal College (QRC) on a scholarship. Upon graduating from the QRC he traveled to London, England to study law at The Honorable Society of the Middle Temple (Middle Temple), he attended Middle Temple for two years before developing an interest in the field of journalism and returning to Trinidad in 1969. While in Trinidad Howe was heavily influenced by his uncle C. L. R. James to use journalism and political activism as a tool for liberation. C.L.R. James was an Afro-Trinidadian historian, journalist, socialist and pioneering voice in postcolonial literature. Following his passion for journalism Howe worked as the assistant editor for the Vanguard, a Trinidadian newspaper owned by the Oilfields Workers’ Trade Union.
Howe learned about a US based black empowerment organization called The Black Panthers whose message was spreading to black people around the globe. In 1970, Howe moved back to London, England and became involved with the British Black Panther Movement; this is also the time he gained the nickname “Darcus”. The summer of 1970 brought about Howe, The Black Panthers and Althea Jones-Lecointe organizing with their communities to protest the British police’s constant raids of a Caribbean restaurant called the Mangrove Restaurant. The Mangrove Restaurant was owned by Frank Crichlow a black entrepreneur and activist the British police labeled as an adversary. Howe was employed at the restaurant and the establishment was used as a citadel for black organization and empowerment; the restaurant was raided at least twelve times by the police. The community protested of the constant police raids of the restaurant, one protest grew into one hundred and fifty people descending upon the police stations to protect their community members. The protest was peaceful until the people were attacked by a large number of police officers leading to many injuries and arrest of the protesters.
The trial of the Mangrove Nine was a high profile landmark trial which placed black empowerment for black Britain in opposition with the local police force and the legal system. The Mangrove Nine consisted of Barbara Beese, Rupert Boyce, Frank Critchlow, Rhodan Gordon, Darcus Howe, Anthony Innis, Althea Jones-LeCointe, Rothwell Kentish and Godfrey Millett. The Mangrove Nine were arrested and charged with inciting a riot during their protest even though they were attacked by the police. Howe commanded that the Mangrove Nine be given an all-black jury for the trial but his command was denied. In 1971, the Mangrove Nine were forced to endure a trial that lasted for fifty-five days ultimately ending in all nine people being acquitted of all charges. The judge presiding over the trial acknowledging that the police officers who opposed the protesters were motivated by racial hatred was a pivotal moment within the trial. Later the judge was forced to retract his statement of motivation by racial hatred; by the time of the retraction the impact of his original statement was greatly felt. In 1973, Franco Rosso, John La Rose and Horace Ové teamed with Howe to produce the documentary film The Mangrove Nine which provides background details of the protest and trial.
Later in 1973, Howe served as editor of the Race Today magazine which was established in 1969 by a black think tank called the Institute of Race Relations. Under the control of Howe the Race Today magazine was moved to Brixton in South London and became known as a black radical newspaper because it focused on the issues that were concerning black Britain. Howe recruited black activist to write for the magazine such as Farrukh Dhondy, Linton Kwesi Johnson, Barbara Beese and Leila Hassan; Hassan eventually succeed Howe as the editor of the magazine in 1988. Howe would use the magazine as an instrument to help deliver messages to the masses and to bring political and community change. They supported the Asian female worker strike, as well as, helped to organize a community squat in that resulted in the community members gaining housing and benefits. In 1977, Howe was wrongfully arrested and sentenced three months in jail for an assault charge. The charge was appealed and protest broke out to clear the name of Darcus Howe. Eventually the charge was dropped and Howe was released from jail.
Howe and the Race Today magazine took on their biggest story when they became involved with the New Cross house fire. During a house party in the New Cross district of London thirteen young blacks were killed in a house fire that was believed to be started by white racist. The mainstream media used its power to convince the masses that the fire was a result of carelessness by the teens and was not racially motivated. In retaliation to the media’s side of the story Howe and others used strategies that were learned from black political heroes in the US to organize black Britain’s largest demonstration on a Monday. Over two thousand people showed up to voice their frustrations with racism and the media that supports it. After the demonstration the British police responded by using systematic racist tactics and the stop and frisk terror was intensified against black Brits. The tension between black Britain and the police led to three days of violence called the Brixton Riots. Black people in Britain took their frustrations against the police to the streets and faced their oppressors head on. Howe and the Race Today magazine was able chronicle the ordeal and tell the story from the standpoint of the oppressed people.
Howe’s journalism career led him to appearing on television starting 1982 with the television series Black on Black. Howe co-edited the series with a man named Tariq Ali; both Ali and Howe would collaborate on two other television series’ Bandung File and White Tribe. In 1992, Howe hosted a television show title The Devil’s Advocate for the local channel 4 British television. He also was a writer for The New Statesman, a British political and cultural magazine. In 2005, Howe was a keynote speaker and debuted his documentary film Who You Callin’ a Nigger? at the Belfast Film Festival’s “Film and Racism” seminar. Late in 2005, Howe produced another documentary titled Son of Mine about his uneasy relationship with his son.
On April 1st, 2017, Darcus Howe died of prostate cancer at the age of seventy-four. He was married three times, produced seven children and left behind a legacy of activism, organization and empowerment. Howe was a brilliant man who knew how to get his community involved in its own liberation. He understood the power of the media and why he needed to have black people documenting and telling their own stories. If it wasn’t for him and the Race Today magazine team, many more stories that impacted black Britain would have gone unknown but still negatively affected the lives of the people. Mr. Leighton Rhett Radford “Darcus” Howe, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
When we think about the Wild West, the cowboys and the lawman that existed in that era, they are always white heroes. It has been proven that our black figures are left out of history even though they made great contributions to America over the centuries. The Lone Ranger character has its roots in the tale of a man named Bass Reeves who literally was the most feared man in the West. Bass Reeves was born into slavery in 1838 in Crawford County, Arkansas, on a plantation owned by the farmer and state legislator William Steele Reeves. Bass Reeves was named after his grandfather Basse Washington but was given the last name of his slave master William Reeves. In 1846, William Reeves moved his family and businesses to Grayson County, Texas while Bass was still a young man. Bass worked on the Reeves plantation as a water boy until he was old enough to work as a field hand. William Reeves was the principle owner of his plantation and the slaves but his son George R. Reeves was given ownership of Bass. George Reeves served as a sheriff, legislator and a Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives.
Bass grew into a fine well-mannered young man standing six feet two inches tall, but his reputation was about to change and he was about to become an American legend. During the Civil War Bass was able to free himself from the ownership of George Reeves because he beat up George after a card game. Information also suggests that Bass ran away from slavery after he learned about slaves receiving their freedom. Bass escaped into territory controlled by the Creek, Cherokee and Seminole tribes. While living with the various tribes he learned how to speak several tribal languages, track his targets, master the rifle, master the pistol, and improve his hunting skills. He became so accurate with his rifle that he was prohibited from participating in shooting competitions. After the passing of the Emancipation Proclamation and the 13th amendment slavery was legally abolished in the United States; these changes meant that Bass was no longer a slave and a fugitive of the law.
Bass moved to Van Buren, Arkansas as a free man where he became a farmer, a rancher and he even started a family. He met and married a woman named Nellie Jennie and the couple produced ten children. To help support his family Bass often worked as a scout and a guide for the U.S. Marshals tracking fugitives in the territory owned by the native tribes. Many fugitives ran into tribal territory to escape being arrested and jailed but the Van Buren Courts’ jurisdiction extended into the tribal territories. In 1875, a man named Isaac Parker became the federal judge over the tribal territory, Judge Parker named James Fagan as the U.S. Marshall, and Fagan’s first job was to hire 200 deputy marshals to help arrest the growing numbers of criminals. By this time Bass was well known for his exceptional shooting abilities, his knowledge of many tribal languages, and his tracking skills, so he was highly recommended to become a deputy marshal. Bass accepted the job and became the first black man to serve as a U.S. deputy marshal in the American west.
As a deputy marshal Bass served in Arkansas territory, Texas, Muscogee territory and several other tribal territories for thirty two years. He was very successful at capturing his targets which were some of the most notorious criminals in very dangerous areas. Bass could not read or write but his memory was exceptional, he would have an assistant read him the arrest warrant and he remembered how the warrant looked so he never pursued the wrong target or lost the actual warrant. Bass was successful and classy as a deputy marshal, he rode on a white horse and dressed in his finest clothes carrying two pistols on his side. He wore his pistols backwards so he could draw them from their holsters faster in a gun battle. A no nonsense man, he became known for capturing all the criminals he targeted, dead or alive. As a master of disguise he used his tricks to capture two outlaws near the Texas, Oklahoma Red River Valley. He dressed as a homeless man looking for refuge as he approached the house the outlaws occupied. At the time a woman that accompanied the outlaws welcomed Bass into the hose, she did not suspect Bass to be anyone other than who he portrayed himself as. When the outlaws arrived at the house the lady convinced them that Bass was safe and just passing through. When the outlaws fell asleep Bass was able to capture them and lead them into jail. Once again the original lone ranger completed his mission and collected his five hundred dollars.
Bass’ most famous capture was the outlaw named Bob Dozier who had a reputation for committing various crimes and escaping capture. Bass pursued Dozier for several months then captured him by killing him in a shootout. An ironic twist of fate led to Bass being arrested and placed on trial from the murder of a cook. He was eventually acquitted with the help of United States Attorney W.H.H. Clayton who spoke favorably about Bass to Judge Isaac Parker. Bass went on to be reassigned to work in Paris, Texas where he apprehended Tom Story of the Tom Story Gang, the outlaw Greenleaf, and outlaw Ned Christie. His wife died in 1896 at Fort Smith, he was later transferred to the Muskogee federal court in tribal territory where he met his second wife Winnie Sumter. Bass’ toughest manhunt was tracking down his own son who had a warrant for murder. As the greatest deputy marshal in the entire west, Bass delivered his son into the hands of the law, he was convicted and sentenced to serve life in prison. One of the last jobs Bass held was a patrolman for the Muskogee and Oklahoma Police Department; it is said that no crimes were committed while Bass was on patrol.
In 1910, Bass became sick and eventually died from the sickness as the greatest deputy marshal in the west. In his thirty five year career working with various law enforcement agencies he apprehended over three thousand criminals and killed fourteen. To say Bass Reeves was exceptional would be an understatement, he was one of, if not, the most successful deputy marshal of all-time. It is highly believed that the television show “The Lone Ranger” was based off of the life of this man. Who would have ever thought that a black man would inspire a white television hero? We are learning more and more that our black heroes have inspired a great deal of American culture. The Wild West wasn’t so wild while Bass patrolled the areas. A black man struck fear into the hearts of the most dangerous criminals of that time. Mr. Bass Reeves, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
Mary Ann Shadd was born in Wilmington, Delaware on October 9, 1823 to parents Abraham Doras Shadd and Harriet Burton Parnell. Mary was the eldest of thirteen children who were born free from slavery because Abraham and Harriet were free blacks. Social activism was in her bloodline, her great grandfather was Hans Schad aka John Shadd who was a foreigner. Hans was originally from Hesse-Cassel which was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in Europe. Hans came into the United States as a Hessian soldier fighting for the British Army in the French and Indian War. Abraham Shadd was a shoemaker with shoe shops in Wilmington, Delaware and Chester, Pennsylvania. He joined the American Anti-Slavery Society, became the president of the National Convention for the Improvement of Free People of Color in Philadelphia, and was a conductor for the Underground Railroad in both Delaware and Pennsylvania. Because Abraham and Harriet were active in fighting chattel slavery Mary often witnessed her parents harboring runaway slaves in their home.
The Shadd family was forced to relocate to Pennsylvania from Delaware because it became illegal to educate black people in the state of Delaware. Upon settling in Pennsylvania Mary begin attending a Quaker boarding school to complete her formal education. Mary didn’t live with her family while she attended the Quaker boarding school, she graduated the school and returned to West Chester, Pennsylvania where her family lived. She used her education and entrepreneurial spirit to found a school for black children that provided them with a chance at a bright future. She also established schools in New York City and Norristown, Pennsylvania. The Fugitive Slave Act was passed in 1850 which threatened the safety and freedom of the Shadd family. In 1853, Abraham moved his family to North Buxton, Ontario, Canada to continue living in freedom. While in Canada Abraham was elected as the Counselor of Raleigh Township, Ontario in 1858; this election made Abraham the first black man to be elected to political office in Canada.
Mary along with Isaac who was her brother, moved to Windsor, Ontario where she begin campaigning for free black people to move to Canada establishing themselves to thrive. In 1849, Mary published a twelve page pamphlet titled Hints to the colored People of the North encouraging black self-sufficiency; she also wrote a letter to Frederick Douglas criticizing black leaders, black churches and endorsed the use of education to help liberate blacks from slavery. During her time in Windsor Mary established an integrated school and published her second pamphlet titled Notes on Canada West in 1852. Notes on Canada West was written as a call to black Americans to move to the free lands of Canada. Between 1853 and 1854 Mary founded Canada’s first anti-slavery newspaper called the Provincial Freeman; she became the first woman editor-in-chief of a magazine in North America. Isaac, Mary’s brother contributed to the newspaper eventually became the manager and was also involved in social activism. The Provincial Freeman circulated throughout the United States and Canada as an instrument of empowerment specifically for blacks through positive information and imagery. The newspaper was in circulation from 1853 to 1861.
In 1855, Mary’s interest in joining the Philadelphia Colored Convention was met with resistance due to her stance on blacks immigrating to Canada; to be a part of the convention she had to be voted in and received enough votes by a slim margin. During the convention she gave a speech so powerful that she was allowed extra time to speak; Frederick Douglass feared that she was celebrated but not fully respected because she was a black woman. Mary married a black barber named Thomas F. Cary from Toronto in 1856, the couple had two children but Thomas unfortunately died in 1860. After the death of Thomas Cary, Mary moved back to the United States with her children and was recruited by abolitionist to help enlist black people into the Union Army. After the conclusion of the Civil War Mary continued teaching and enrolled into the Harvard School of Law. In 1883, at the age of 60 Mary became the second black woman in the United States to earn a law degree.
Mary’s age did not slow her down a bit. After completing law school she became a writer for the National Era and The People’s Advocate newspapers, organized the Colored Women’s Progressive Franchise in 1880, joined the National Woman Suffrage Association, and became the first black woman to vote in a national election. She died on June 5th, 1893 due to stomach cancer in Washington D.C. but left her mark on the world and the people she touched. She literally dedicated her life to the education and liberation of her people, just like her parents did for the Underground Railroad. Miss. Mary Ann Shadd Cary, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
Frances Luella Cress was born on March 18th, 1935 in Chicago, Illinois to parents Dr. Henry Cress and Mrs. Ida Mae Griffen. Dr. Henry Cress was a physician who earned his Ph. D. from the University Of Illinois College Of Medicine in 1931, Ida Mae Griffen was a school teacher. Her grandfather was a physician and surgeon named Dr. Henry Clay Cress. Dr. Welsing’s parents and grandparents created a sound foundation for her to set the world on fire with her intellect and courage. She graduated from Wendell Phillips High School in 1953 before attending Antioch College located in Yellow Springs, Ohio. During her time as a student at Antioch College Dr. Welsing was able to work in the medical school laboratory at Northwestern University. In 1955, she participated in a work study program that required the students to complete classroom work and gain full-time experience working in their chosen field. Her work consisted of serving as a lab technician for the bio-chemistry department of the New York State Psychiatric Institute. She graduated from Antioch College in 1957 earning a bachelor’s of science degree. Her next step was to enroll into Howard University’s College of Medicine where she earned her M.D. in 1962.
Following her graduation from Howard University’s college of Medicine Dr. Welsing completed a three year residency program at St. Elizabeth’s Hospital in Washington D.C. She then concluded a two year fellowship in Child Psychology at Children’s Hospital which is also located in Washington D.C. She worked as a general and child psychiatrist before working as a physician for the Department of Human Services. She became the clinical director for a number of schools in the D.C. area working with emotionally troubled children before opening her own practice in 1967. In 1969, Dr. Welsing wrote a letter titled “Distorted Logic” that was published in the “Black Voices” column of the Afro Newspaper. The letter was the beginning of Dr. Welsing delivering her understanding of the global system of white supremacy/racism and how it responds to the melanated people of the world. The letter specifically questioned the My Lai massacre that happened in the south of Vietnam and the many massacres that happened to the Africans around the globe. Dr. Welsing noted that white America was hypocritical in its criticism of racism even though they continued to teach their children to uphold the legacy of white supremacy.
Later in 1969, Dr. Welsing wrote the Cress Theory of Color Confrontation which was a paper that further broke down the relationship between white supremacy and the worlds people of color, specifically the heavily melanated people. Within the paper she gave attention to a statement made by the Black Caucus of the American Psychological Association which stated, “Racism was the number one mental health problem in the nation and was the number one cause of mental health problems.” Around this time Dr. Welsing met a brilliant man named Neely Fuller Jr. who helped her understand that racism was a system of domination and control of every major area of human activity. Fuller Jr. is the author of the book The United-Independent Compensatory Code/System/Concept Textbook: A Compensatory Counter-Racist Code. The Cress Theory of Color Confrontation was officially published in 1974 and was the first of her major published works. In 1975, Dr. Welsing began having troubles with the administration at Howard University. She was denied tenure with the university because of her “controversial” views about racism, homosexuality and white supremacy.
The dean of the medical school did not want to promote Dr. Welsing from an assistant professor to an associate professor because of her views. The situation was officially reviewed by university officials because the medical school committee voted to promote Dr. Welsing but the dean was against the promotion. In 1975, Dr. Welsing was fired by Howard University without any substantial reason other than being afraid of Dr. Welsing’s views against white supremacy. In February of 1974, Dr. Welsing participated in a debate against a white man named Dr. William Shockley on the television show Tony Browns Journal. The debate centered on Dr. Shockley claiming that blacks were not suffering from racism rather they are genetically inferior beings compared to whites. Dr. Welsing used her research and superior intellect to systematically tear Dr. Shockley to shreds and damming his false claims. Black people have never been and never will be genetically inferior to whites or any other race of people.
In 1991, Dr. Wesling published a masterpiece of a book titled The IsIs Papers: The Keys To The Colors, which was a collection of the essays she wrote as she gained a better understanding of the system of white supremacy. The book gave a great overview of how white supremacy is ingrained in every facet of life and how symbols, mis-education, social engineering, violence and other methods are used to help maintain white supremacy and prevent genetic annihilation by African people. She wrote about how the black male’s genitals were constantly under attack and how homosexuality, abortions and constant killings of black people are used to maintain low numbers of blacks and decrease reproduction.
Dr. Welsing was a titan in the black conscious movement for over fifty years. Her theories though controversial to those who did not believe in black liberation, were revolutionary in helping to understand what has happened to African people because of white supremacy. She spent many years traveling around the world lecturing and teaching her theories to thousands of students who were honored to learn from her. She was such a powerful figure that many of her opponents waited until her death in January of 2016 to challenge her theories. They knew of her brilliance and were afraid to challenge her while she was alive. Though the world lost a great person she left an amazing legacy that will never die. She helped us understand what racism was and how it impacted African people. Neely Fuller Jr stated, “If you don’t understand White Supremacy (Racism) – what it is, and how it works – everything else that you understand, will only confuse you.” She is greatly loved and greatly missed by the black community. Dr. Frances Cress Welsing we proudly, proudly, stand on your shoulders.
Little Known Black History Fact: Dr. Frances Cress Welsing
The South American countries of Suriname and French Guiana are home to many groups of people called Maroons who are African people that escaped slavery and created their own societies. The Saramaka People are one of six groups of Maroons who inhabit the two countries, the Ndyuka, Matawari, Paramaka, Aluku, and Kwinti are the other five groups of Maroons; together these six groups of people make up the largest remaining collection of Maroons in the world. The Saramaka are comprised of several Central and Western African cultures who were enslaved by the Dutch and Portuguese to work on plantations that produced sugar, coffee and timber. In the 17th and 18th centuries individuals, as well as groups of African people escaped their plantations and created Maroon societies, the Saramaka being one of the societies. Information suggests that in 1690, a mass of Africans escaped slavery and created the first Saramaka society. Escaping into the dense forest of Suriname and settling along the Suriname River, they organized a society to protect themselves and their freedom against Dutch slavers.
In 1862, African people enslaved in Suriname were emancipated by the Dutch, but the Saramaka won their freedom one hundred years earlier. The Saramaka waged war and were able to force the Dutch create and sign a peace treaty that acknowledged their rights as traders and as a territory. Like the other groups of Maroons, the Saramaka were able to retain a number of their African customs and create a way of life close to what they lived in Africa. They speak a form of creole called Saramaccan, a dialect that is composed of Portuguese, English, Dutch, Niger-Congo languages of West Africa, and Akan. Most of the saramaccan dialect comes from the English language, the dialect is also divided into the upper Suriname and lower Suriname River dialect, the Matawari tribe also speaks a form of the Saramaccan dialect. They are matrilineal people who live off of the lands cultivating crops such as okra, maize, plantains, bananas, sugarcane, peanuts, and much more, the men also hunt and fish to help sustain the societies. Because of incorporating trading with other people and nations, they are able to acquire items that are popularized by western societies, today some Saramaka people even use cell phones.
A civil war between the Saramaka and the military of Suriname occurred in the 1980’s leaving many of the Saramaka people displaced, some were forced to migrate to French Guiana to find refuge. The civil war lasted for ten years, following the war the Saramaka were purposely neglected by the government and systematically oppressed. Their lands were being overrun by Peace Corps volunteers, gold miners and other capitalist looking to make money off of the people and the lands. The Association of Saramaka Authorities filed a complaint to the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights against the government of Suriname in the 1990’s. The case took seventeen years, but finally in 2007 the Inter-American Court for Human Rights awarded the Saramaka rights to their lands, rights to decide how the land will be exploited, and finally they were compensated by the government for damages that hurt them economically.
The Saramaka along with the five other Maroon groups of Suriname are examples of the fierce and resilient spirit of African people. Though they were kidnapped from their homeland, enslaved and dehumanized, they never gave up their goal of living a life as people free from slavery. They are said to be one of the largest groups of Maroons in Suriname, they relentlessly fought the Dutch and regained the rights to their lands and their way of living. White supremacy came in the form of the Dutch and the Portuguese and literally disrupted the lives of African people, but those same people found a way to restore their freedom and way of living. To the Saramaka People and all the Maroons of the African diaspora, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
The great Mansa Musa I is said to be born around 1280 AD within the empire of Mali. The Malian Empire was established by Sundiata Keita who is also the great uncle of Mansa Musa. Emperor Abu Bakari II ruled Mali before Musa began his reign, Musa was appointed the Deputy of Mali before Abu Bakari II was never seen again after taking a voyage to find the Atlantic Ocean. In 1312, Musa was given the title of Mansa Musa and control over an empire with unmatched wealth. Mali controlled gold and slat mines as well as other natural resources they used to generate wealth. Mansa Musa was a very wise ruler who embraced Islam and the expansion of his empire, under his rule the Empire of Mali stretched from the Atlantic coast, through Timbuktu, over to the edge of the Sahara Desert. The empire was thriving under the rulership of Mansa Musa; the emperor’s reputation for his faith and wealth was about to become legendary.
Musa was a devout Muslim and his Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca was a very important event for him, little did he know his travels would change the world. It took several years for him to prepare for his journey; in 1324, Mansa Musa became the first West African ruler to make the Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca. The journey was over four thousand miles but he was well prepared. It is estimated that he was accompanied by 60,000 men, 12,000 servants, messengers wearing expensive silks, over 80 camels, and all of his fellow travelers carried riches and materials worth millions. One of the greatest aspects of this story is that Mansa Musa gave out money, gold and other riches to the poor and organizations as he journeyed to and from Mecca. Mansa Musa singlehandedly disrupted the economy of Egypt by giving out so much gold during his time in Cairo. It literally took Egypt over a decade for their economy to recover from Mansa Musa visiting their country. During his stay in Egypt Mansa Musa would meet the sultan of Egypt al-Malik al-Nasir, but their interactions was not very favorable initially. Musa was expected to greet al-Nasir and humble himself as a subordinate, Musa did not see himself as a subordinate of al-Nasir and was not initially interested in al-Nasir’s company or hospitality. Eventually Musa obliged al-Nasir’s hospitality and made the best of his brief stay in Cairo.
The expansion of the empire of Mali was always a goal of Mansa Musa, during his Hajj he was able to acquire Songhi’s city of Gao which became the site of a Mosque Musa built after returning from Mecca. Upon his return from Mecca he brought back aspects of the different cultures he thought could enhance his empire. Architects, scholars, government officials and others returned to Mali with the emperor. An architect named Ishaq El Teudjin is said to have taught the Malian architects techniques that were used to build the great mosque of Timbuktu, the mosque of Gao, the emperors chamber at Niani, and the Madagou palace for Musa. He was able to increase the lore and fascination of Mali, he made Timbuktu a leading educational and Islamic center throughout the world, and the wealth of his empire continued to grow as the reputation of the emperor grew. Mali was literally recognized as a global empire, and was included in the maps that Europe and other nations produced when mapping out the world.
Mali was a true world power that consisted of over four hundred cities under its rule. Under the rulership of Mansa Musa not only was Timbuktu made a leading Islamic and educational center, it became the home of the great Djinguereber Mosque which is still standing to this day. Mansa Musa was able to thrive as the emperor of Mali in a time before the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade ravished the African continent. Stories of rulers such as Mansa Musa were hidden from the children of Africa so white supremacy could reign. This particular story was hidden in my opinion, because white supremacist didn’t want us to know that the wealthiest man ever was an African Emperor who ruled Mali. From the time of Sundiata to the time of Mansa Musa, Mali became one of the most powerful and wealthiest empires the world has ever seen. To the great Mansa Musa I of Mali, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
The legendary warrior Samori Toure was born in 1830 in the village of Manyambaladugu, located in the southeast region of Guinea. His father was a trader so Toure also became a trader until the age of twenty. West Africa was being influenced heavily by European culture due to colonialism and the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. In 1848, Toure’s mother was kidnapped during a slave raid by King Sori Birama (also pronounced Séré-Burlay); to free his mother Toure became a soldier in the king’s army. During his time in the army he developed himself into one of the best warriors in the Guinea. After serving his time in King Birama’s army Toure left the army with his mother, he then sought refuge with the Bérété army for two years. He mastered fire arms and improved is military skills by leading the Bérété army into battle. Toure left the Bérété army and reunited with his own people the Malinke of Guinea armed with an empowering vision to help his people.
Using the military skills and education he gained over the years, Toure systematically organized his people and the surrounding kingdoms into a single army with a single focus. The goals of the Malinke were to protect themselves from rival tribes, Europeans and expand their territory. Toure’s army was legendary; a well-oiled machine consisting of over 65,000 men with a cavalry and infantry. Both the cavalry and the infantry were individually organized to function singularly and as a unit of the entire army. Toure would declare himself the Monarch of the empire he was building; his territory expanded from as far north as the borders of Sierra Leone to Liberia in the south; from the Ivory Coast in the west to the Sudan in the East. It is said that Toure’s empire reached its apex between 1883 and 1887; during this time Toure became the Almami, or the religious leader of his empire. Islam was the dominant religion of Toure’s empire.
Toure would be the founder of the Wassoulou Empire, which is also referred to as the Mandinka/Melenke Empire. The Wassoulou Empire was solidified around 1878 with Toure as its leader and founder. He was also gaining a name for himself by standing strong against European colonialism. The French declared war on Toure because he would not allow them to steal land and monopolize the trading of goods at the Kenyeran market center. The Wassoulou and the French were at war from 1882 to 1885, the warring led to the signing of peace treaties between the French and the Wassoulou in 1886 and 1887. The Berlin Conference occurred in 1884, which basically was Europe dividing Africa between the countries and taking the land. As expected, the French did not honor the peace treaty and the Wassoulou waged war against the French in 1888 to defend their lands. Because his army was able to deny the French, Toure and his army’s reputation grew. The final peace treaty between the Wassoulou and the French was signed in 1889. In 1890, Toure was able to reinforce his army by obtaining arms from the British and implementing guerrilla warfare tactics to fight the French. Unfortunately, in 1891, the French was able to overpower Toure’s army forcing him to move his capital eastward to Dabakala, cote d’ivoire. Toure was able to rebuild his empire despite the advances from French colonizers, his new capital city was Kong and he used the landscape along with the guerrilla tactics to fight off the relentless pursuit of the French forces. Toure’s army was invaded by the French in 1898, during the invasion Toure was captured and eventually forced into exiled in Gambon.
Toure would die two years into his exile in 1900 as the warrior king who fearlessly fought off French colonization. During the years of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade African people were constantly being kidnapped and taken into slavery. Fortunately for Toure when his mother was captured she was not sold to the Europeans, this allowed the legend of Samori Toure to begin. He was able to hone his military skills and develop himself mentally as a leader. Toure is revered for his fortitude, strategy, leadership, loyalty and victories. Even though the French were able to eventually overtake Toure, they were never able to kill his movement, his spirit and his legendary status. Legendary Warrior Emperor Samori Toure, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
In 1788, Mary Prince was born to enslaved parents in Brackish Pond, which is now Devonshire Parish, Bermuda. Mary’s father was owned by David Trimmingham and worked as a sawyer, her mother was a house servant owned by Charles Myners. In 1788, Myners died which caused Mary along with her mother, brothers and sisters to be sold to Captain Darrell Williams. Captain Williams then gave Mary’s mother to his wife Sarah Williams as a servant; Mary was gifted to Betsey Williams the granddaughter of Captain Darrell. In 1798, Sarah Williams died, Captain Williams would meet a new woman and Marry her two years later. To pay for the wedding Captain Williams sold Mary to Captain John Ingham separating her from her family. She was twelve years old, away from her family and facing constant abuse from the Ingham family. The Ingham’s constantly beat their slaves. Mary once witnessed her pregnant friend Hetty beaten to death by the Ingham’s. She would grow tired of the beatings and escape the Ingham plantation seeking refuge with her mother. Mary’s mother and other enslaved women helped Mary hide in a cave for several months before she returned to the Ingham plantation.
The Ingham’s decided to sell Mary in 1805 to an enslaver known as Mr. D who owned a salt pond in the Turks and Caicos Islands. Mr. D’s workers were extracting salt from the salt ponds for up to seventeen hours a day. The conditions of the salt ponds were inhumane and hazardous to the health of the workers. The men who worked the salt ponds were at risk of losing limbs because they were knee deep in salt water almost all day every day. Mary and the other women were charged with packaging the salt that was collected by the men. Workers would die or become very ill often because of the working conditions, Mary developed rheumatism and St. Anthony’s fire. Mr. D decided to give up salt mining and moved to Bermuda with his family taking Mary along with him. Unfortunately Mr. D was no different than the Ingham’s, he also abused Mary along with his daughter. Mary was forced to bathe Mr. D daily which was some of the sexual abuse she suffered at his hands. Mr. D contracted Mary out to a place named Cedar Hill working as a clothes washer, the money Mary earned washing clothes Mr. D collected.
Mr. D sold Mary to John Adams Wood of Antigua for $300 in 1815. She once again worked as a servant while suffering from the effects of rheumatism; often she could not work because of her declining physical condition. Wood traveled often, during his travels Mary would take advantage of his absence and make money for herself washing clothes and selling food. She learned to read after joining the Moravian Church which was something she feared the Wood’s would not approve of. She also married a man named Daniel James in 1826, a free black man who brought his freedom working as a carpenter and cooper. Because Mary married a free black man Wood abused her out of fear of her running away. The Wood family traveled to England in 1828, geographically Mary was free because slavery was abolished in the United Kingdom by the Slave Trade Act of 1807. Adams Wood unofficially freed Mary but still retained the rights to her. He would tell her she could leave but went out of his way to make sure she couldn’t make a living.
Eventually, Mary would escape enslavement with the help of the Moravian church in Hatton Garden, London. Contrary to what Wood believed or told Mary, she found work with the writer and abolitionist Thomas Pringle; she also joined the Anti-Slavery Society as their secretary. Mary’s fight for her freedom was far from over, if she wanted to return to Antigua and live with her husband as a free woman, Wood needed to grant her freedom, Wood refused to grant her freedom. The Anti-Slavery Society would petition the parliament for Mary’s freedom but was not successful. Several petitions and bills were proposed to end slavery in the West Indies but at that time all were turned down. Pringle hired Mary to work for him in 1829 and also convinced her to have her life story recorded by Susanna Strickland. The History of Mary Prince was officially published in 1831, this was the first time a book was published describing the life of an enslaved black woman in the United Kingdom. The book upset many of the people who supported and participated in the slave trade because it exposed the terrible conditions the slaves endured. Two human rights cases arouse out of the controversy the book caused by exposing the true conditions of slavery. The Slavery Abolition Act was passed in 1833 which ended slavery but allowed slavers time to transition the wealth they gained.
The book The History of Mary Prince forced the people of the United Kingdom to view slavery through the eyes of an abused slave. Her book helped to push for the overall abolition of slavery within the West Indian Islands and other English territories. The book was so popular that it sold out three times and three different editions were published within its first year. Much is not known about Mary Prince’s life following the years after her book was published, but her life’s story is one of many stories we have that gives accurate accounts of the lives of slaves. Many people think that slavery outside of the United States was less cruel, but stories like Mary’s give us a different narrative. She used her experience to help others live a life free of enslavement. Mrs. Mary Prince, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
In 1797, a young girl named Isabella was born into slavery in Ulster County, New York. Her parents were named James and Betsy, they were owned by Colonel Johannes Hardenbergh. As a young girl Isabella did not speak English, she only spoke what is called low Dutch and she could not read or write. Isabella would marry a man named Thomas who was also enslaved and the couple produced five children. Between 1815 and 1826 she was sold to four different slave owners on four different occasions. In 1826, Isabella had enough and decided to escape slavery and claim her freedom.
She made her home in New York City until 1843 when she began traveling the country as a Preacher fighting injustices. One of the major changes Isabella made in her life was the changing of her name; she chose the name Sojourner Truth. Her name fit her mission as an abolitionist; she was determined to combat slavery. Throughout her travels Truth would live in Massachusetts and Ohio, she slowly built a name for herself from the Midwest to the Southeast. She was able to build alliances with fellow abolitionist and freedom fighters; she also found a way to support herself by selling self-portraits. Truth also made a living by selling her biography, The Narrative of Sojourner Truth, A Northern Slave, which was written by Olive Gilbert in 1850.
Sammy Banks, the grandson of Truth joined her in her fight against slavery, he could read and write so he was very useful to her. In 1856, she traveled to Battle Creek, Michigan via invite to speak in front of a group of Quakers who were considered radical. She would eventually move to Battle Creek, Michigan ten years later, converting an old barn into her home. During the 1860’s, Truth found herself working for the Freedman’s Bureau at a time when ex-slaves were looking for refuge. Her mission with the bureau was to push for improved conditions for blacks at the Freedman’s Village. A huge number of ex-slaves were coming from Washington D.C. with no place to live or turn. Many were able to live at the Freedman’s Village but still managed to experience inhumane conditions. The children of the slaves were often kidnapped by the residents of Maryland, and when the parents complained they were punished.
Truth became aware of the conditions the people were living in and lead a protest against the village. She was threatened immediately with detainment, but as a true hero she took the mission head on. Truth became instrumental in helping ex-slaves travel across the country to start a new life. She was relentless in her efforts to lobby the government for free land for the ex-slaves, and to cover the cost of their relocation. Truth is most notable for the speech widely but inaccurately known as “Ar’n’t I a Woman?” She gave an address at a women’s rights convention in 1851, but the speech she gave was not the “Aint I a Woman” version. The original version of the speech was published by Marius Robinson in the 1852 issue of The Anti-Slavery Bugle. The “Ar’n’t I A Woman?” version was published by Frances Gage; she added the “Ar’n’t I A Woman?” phrase and added a more southern dialect. The Gage version of the speech was published in 1863. The purpose of the address was to bring awareness to the plight of women and to fight for equality. On September 26th, 1883 Sojourner Truth died in her home at the age of 86. It is reported that 1,000 people attended her funeral to honor her. Truth devoted her life to literally freeing her people from enslavement, and helping to improve race relation throughout the country. Madame Sojourner Truth, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
Did you know that thirteen of the fifteen jockeys in the first Kentucky Derby were black men? Black horse jockeys were black America’s first sports stars, winning fifteen of the first twenty-eight Kentucky Derby’s. Black jockeys would dominate the sport for its first thirty years. The first Kentucky derby was ran in 1875 at Church Hill Downs in Louisville, Kentucky. Oliver Lewis a black jockey was the first winner of the Kentucky Derby, the three-year old thoroughbred horse he rode named Aristides recorded the fastest time ever for a horse that size. Blacks learned to master horses and horse racing through the time they spent caring for horses during slavery. Slave masters forced blacks to serve as the riders, groomers and trainers of their horses. Because of the amount of time blacks spent with the horses, black riders had a superior connection with the horses compared to the white riders and trainers. Black jockeys dominated horse racing in the South through the Emancipation period while white jockeys dominated horse racing in the North.
Ansel Williamson was a former slave and trainer who trained the horse Aristides who won the first Kentucky Derby. Williamson was able to defeat fellow black jockey Oliver Lewis is a later race; Lewis rode the horse named Chesapeake. Ed Brown was the black Jockey that won the 1877 Kentucky Derby riding the horse Baden-Baden, Brown would also go on to own his own stables for horse racing. Horse Jockey Isaac Murphy is considered the greatest jockey in American history and was one of the most popular sports figures of his time. He was the son of a former slave and would win one third of the races he entered. He was he first rider to win back to back Kentucky Derby’s and the first rider to win three Kentucky Derby’s total. His career was threatened when he was accused of drinking on the job, he was not found guilty and bounced back by winning the following Kentucky Derby. The horse Murphy rode was owned by a black man named Dudley Allen a former slave who is the only black man to own a winning Kentucky Derby horse. Black jockey Jimmy Winkfield won back to back Kentucky Derby’s in 1902 becoming the second rider to do so. Winkfield was a very successful jockey in America and abroad, the Jim Crow era forced black jockeys from the race tracks so Winkfield raced in Russia, Poland and Germany ending his racing career with 2,600 wins.
The black presence at the Kentucky Derby came to an end because of systematic racism which was allowed at Church Hill Downs. The rise of unequal segregation and Jim Crow gave whites the gumption to literally force black jockeys off of the race track. In 1900, the white jockeys band together to sabotage black riders and keep them off of the tracks. White jockeys would often force black riders to have accidents by literally boxing them in and forcing them to crash into other horses or the rails. They would beat the black jockeys with their whips during the race causing them to fall off of their horses; black jockeys would become critically injured or even killed because of the actions of the white jockeys. The white race officials often turned a blind eye to the terrorism the white jockeys were inflicting upon the black jockeys. Willie Simms is the only black jockey to win the Triple Crown, but even he couldn’t race because of the systematic racism. 1904 is said to be the year that black jockeys were unofficially banned from horse racing; information shows that the banning was significant because no black jockey participated in horse racing from 1921 until the year 2000. In the year 2000 jockey Marlon St. Julien was the first black to race in over seventy years and earned a seventh place finish.
Black Jockeys were forced to take their talents to Europe, some were able to find success others were not. Pike Barnes and Soup Perkins were black jockeys who would earn large amounts of money from winning races until they were kicked out of the sport they helped to popularize. Perkins won the Kentucky Derby at the age of 15 but died at the age of 31 from drinking because he was locked out of horse racing. White riders demanded and received segregated races to further keep blacks out of the sport. Black jockeys faced severe hardships because they could not earn a living through racing, some committed suicide, some found other ways to make a living, while others died from the compounding effects of systematic racism. The story of black horse racing is another example of why black Americans have to learn to protect what we build as long as we exist within the grasp of white supremacy. To all of the black horse jockeys who paved the way for the Kentucky Derby and horse racing to thrive, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
Betty Wright Harris was born on July 29th, 1940 to parents Henry Hudson “Jake” Wright and Legertha Evelyn Thompson Wright, in Ouachita Parish, Monroe, Louisiana. She was one of eleven children raised on the farm her parents worked on until they were able to buy the farm. Harris was a brilliant child and even enrolled into Southern University at the age of sixteen; her mother Legertha was a school teacher and taught her children the value of gaining an education. At the age of nineteen Harris graduated from Southern University with a bachelor’s degree in science, she next moved to Atlanta, GA to attend Atlanta University, she would go on to graduate with a master’s degree in chemistry. After earning her bachelor’s and master’s degrees Harris was employed by Mississippi Valley State University, Southern University and Colorado College as an assistant professor of chemistry and mathematics. Harris met and married a man named Alloyd A. Harris and they would have three children.
Harris began completing doctoral level chemistry classes at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee before accepting a position to work at IBM. She next accepted a position to work as a visiting staff member at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) located in New Mexico. She had a desire to further her learning and enrolled in the University of New Mexico, graduating in 1973 with her Ph.D. in chemistry. Her dissertation titled “Reactions of 2-Aminopyridine with Picryl Halides” was so prolific that it was published in The Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry. While working at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) her concentrations were explosives and nuclear weapons, cleanup of hazardous materials and environmental restoration. She also gave much attention to explosives detection, characterization of insensitive high explosives, synthesis, sensitivity of weathered high explosives, and safing liquids. Harris was known for using the local Girl Scouts to get young black girls interested in chemistry, she also developed a Girl Scouts badge for chemistry.
Harris’ brilliance was on full display during her time at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, she gained a wealth of knowledge which led to her creating her invention the TATB Spot Test or U.S. Patent number 4,618,452. In 2002, Harris retired from the Los Alamos National Laboratory and took a position as the chief of chemical technology managing technical laboratories, and investigated cold-end corrosion of super alloys, for Solar Turbine Inc. Harris also worked as a certified document reviewer for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Classification. She had access to data that was considered “restricted” due to a special clearance called a “Q” clearance. In 1999, she received a governor’s award and was considered one of the most outstanding women in New Mexico. She was the president of the New Mexico Business and Professional Women’s Organization, Women in Science and Engineering, the American Society for the Advancement of Science, and was also a member of the American Chemical Society for fifty years. Harris is one of the world’s leading experts in explosives, her TATB Spot Test has helped the U.S. military and The Department of Homeland Security to detect different types of explosives. Her brilliance was nurtured early in her life by her parents, her nurturing led to her being able to literally revolutionize the world of chemistry. Dr. Betty Wright Harris, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
On March 14, 1914, Abdias do Nascimento was born to parents Josina and Bem-Bem Nascimento in Franca, Sao Paulo, Brazil. As a child Nascimento experienced racism on several occasions from Italians and Brazilians who did not identify with Afro-Brazilians or lower class Brazilians. He would briefly join the Brazilian military in 1930 but was discharged for conduct undesired by the military. He began his journey as an activist joining Brazil’s first political party, the Frente Negra Brasileira. The party existed from 1931 to 1937 but was disbanded due to the dictatorial Estado Novo or the Second Republic, led by then president Getúlio Vargas. The Second Republic was an authoritarian regime suppressing any ideologies that challenged their control. Nascimento would go on to attend the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and earned his bachelor’s degree in economics. He furthered his studies by attending and graduating from the Higher Institute of Brazilian Studies in 1957, and the Oceanography Institute in 1961.
Nascimento and along with a collective of poets called the “Holy Brotherhood of the Orchid” took a trip to Buenos Aires, Argentina, there Nascimento was privileged to witness Argentinian theater being performed by the Teatro del Pueblo, who incorporated their history and culture within their performances. Inspired by the performances, Nascimento went on to create the Teatro Experimental do Negro, or the Black Experimental Theater, in 1944. Borrowing from the Teatro del Pueblo, Nascimento incorporated African culture, history and education into his performances. Further into his career he starred in a popular play titled Orpheus Of The Conception that eventually became the movie Black Orpheus. The Teatro Experimental do Negro also published a newspaper titled Quilombo after the communities created by the Africans who escaped slavery. Nascimanto’s activist spirit grew stronger and more creative as he found ways to incorporate his messages into the Teatros performances. Democracy was Nascimento’s battle cry as he and the Teatro Experimental do Negro stood up for Afro-Brazilians against racism and unequal treatment. Nascimento became the toughest critic of the Brazilian government and military for their futile attempts at creating a true democracy which included Afro-Brazilians.
In 1968, Nascimento was exiled by the Brazilian military and forced to plant his roots within the Pan-African movement. Even in exile Nascimento did not relent on his criticism of Brazil’s government and military. He would become the vice president and coordinator of the Third Congress of Black Culture in the Americas. He also became a university professor during his exile, he would teach at the University at Buffalo, The State University of New York where he established the chair in African Cultures in the New World, and the Puerto Rican studies programs. He was also a professor at the Yale School of Drama, the University of Ife in Nigeria, and he was also a Professor Emeritus at SUNY-Buffalo. In the early 1980’s Nascimento would return to Brazil a very popular man whose activism was undaunted by the exile. He became an opponent of the appropriation of African culture, poor education and interracial marriages. As a member of the Democratic Labor Party he was elected to the federal Chamber of Deputies in 1983, he served on the senate from 1994 until 1999, and in 2004 he was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize.
In 2011, Nascimento died at the age of 97 leaving a legacy that other activist who followed him could learn from. He used his art to promote African history and culture, his activism was used to protect Afro-Brazilians and earn human rights, he published books such as Thoth and Afrodiaspora, wrote the play Black Mystery, published a book of poetry titled Asés of Blood and Hope: Orikis, and took a stand against the military and the government. As a man who was proud of his African origins, Nascimento understood the importance of promoting his African roots to the next generations. Mr. Abdias do Nascimento, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
On July 1, 1936, Wallace Amos, Jr. was born in Tallahassee, FL where he would live until the age of twelve. After his parents divorced he moved to Manhattan, New York to live with his aunt Della. While living with his aunt Amos found a love for cookies and baking. His aunt was the first to introduce him to baking chocolate chip cookies, which would change his life forever. His love for baking would lead him to enrolling into the Food Trades Vocational High School. At the high school he would take his aunts cookie recipe and improve on it ultimately creating his “Famous Amos” cookie recipe. Before Amos could complete high school he dropped out and joined the United States Air Force. While in the Air Force he gained his high school equivalency diploma before earning an honorable discharge.
After the Air Force Amos had to earn a living, so he began working in the stock room at Saks Fifth Avenue. He was constantly over worked and under paid until he decided to quit Saks Fifth Avenue and try his hand in the entertainment industry. His first taste of the industry was with the William Morris Talent Agency. Similar to his start at Saks Fifth Avenue he had to work his way up. Amos started working in the mail room but that would only last a year. He became the first black talent agent at William Morris. His promotion would turn out to be a great move for the agency and “Famous” Amos. Mr. He would go on to book such acts as The Supremes, Simon & Garfunkel and Marvin Gaye.
Taking all he learned from the William Morris Talent Agency Amos started his own theatrical management agency. His next step was to pack up and move to Los Angles, California. There he started baking again as a way to relax him from his days. His leisure cookie baking turned into an idea for a gourmet cookie stand. Amos was able to borrow $25,000 and built the first freestanding store on Sunset Boulevard, in Hollywood, California. Famous Amos cookies were born. Amos used his knowledge of show business to create a unique and successful marketing plan for his cookies. In 1985 Amos would lose control of the Famous Amos Cookie brand, but would later bounce back with his Uncle Wally’s Muffin Company.
Amos would find a new focus in life after show business and baking, he focused his attention on battling illiteracy. He served as the national spokesperson for Literacy Volunteers of America from 1979 to 2002. He also served on the boards of the National Center for Family Literacy, Read to Me International, and Communities in Schools. In 2005 Amos and his wife co-founded the Chip & Cookie Read Aloud Foundation. Amos has also received the President’s Award for Entrepreneurial Excellence, the Horatio Alger Award, and the National Literacy Honors Award. Wally Amos is an author of eight books, a motivational speaker and a true role model. His latest project is baking cookies as the “Cookie Kahuna” in Oahu, in Kailua Town, Hawaii. “Famous” Amos has touched the hearts, stomachs, and lives of many people worldwide. He used his fame to uplift others and help future generations thrive. Mr. Wallace “Wally” Amos, we stand on your shoulders.
J. A. Ward
On November 17, 1904, William Henry Hastie Jr. was born to parents William Henry Hastie Sr. and Roberta Hastie, in Knoxville, Tennessee. In 1916, the Hastie family moved from Knoxville, Tennessee to Washington D.C. where Hastie would attend Paul Lawrence Dunbar High School and graduate as the valedictorian of his 1921 senior class. After graduation Hastie would move to Amherst, Massachusetts where he would attend Amherst College, he graduated magna cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa, in 1925. For two years he would become a teacher in Brodertown, New Jersey, he then attended Harvard Law School where he would earn his Bachelor of law (LL.B), his Doctor of Judicial Science (S.J.D.) in 1930, and he became a member of the Harvard Law Review. Also in 1930, Hastie would pass the bar exam for Washington D.C. before beginning his work as a solicitor for the Department of Interior until 1937; he was an advisor for the Department of Interior on racial issues. Hastie would create a partnership with Charles Hamilton Houston who ran his own law firm called, The Law Firm of Charles Hamilton Houston, where Houston and his father William Houston led the firm before the partnership with Hastie, creating the Law Firm of Houston, Houston and Hastie. William Houston was the dean of the Howard Law School and soon became a professor and teaching the legendary lawyer Thurgood Marshall.
“Don’t buy where you can’t work,” was the motto of the New Negro Alliance an organization in which Hastie was a founding member of. The New Negro Alliance was an organization based originally in Washington D.C. which used protest and other forms of public demonstration to promote civil rights. One of Hastie’s most popular cases was the New Negro Alliance v. The Sanitary Grocery Co.. Blacks were issued an injunction by a local court for picketing the grocery store because they did not hire blacks. Hastie got off to a slow start in overturning the injunction, he lost the case in an initial trial, as well as in an appeals court, but the case was finally overturned in a U.S. Supreme Court. Hastie’s persistence led to a landmark victory which gave blacks and other groups of people the right to peaceful labor protesting without the fear of an injunction; this particular decision was named the Norris-LaGuardia Act. The success of the case made Hastie a popular figure in the civil rights movement, it led to Hastie becoming an advisor on racial matters for Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933. As an advisor Hastie drafted legislation which affected policies in the U.S. Virgin Islands. The legislation changed policies which allowed the residents of the Virgin Islands to vote without facing discrimination.
Following the legislation Hastie was appointed as a District Judge in the U.S. Virgin Islands by President Roosevelt, the appointment made Hastie the first black Federal Judge in the U.S.; Hastie didn’t complete his four year term because he became the dean of Howard Law School in 1939. Hastie became a law professor while serving as the dean of the Howard Law School, and even had the pleasure of becoming a professor to Thurgood Marshall. Later in Hastie’s and Marshall’s law career they would work together as co-lawyers in the Smith v. Allwright case that ruled against poll taxes being levied against black voters. In 1940, Hastie would work with the Secretary of War Henry Stimson to fight for the equal treatment of black soldiers in the armed forces. On January 15, 1943 Hastie gave up his position in protest of the continued unequal treatment of black soldiers. Later in 1943, he would receive the NAACP’s Spingarn Medal for his work in the fight for equal rights for black Americans. In 1946, Hastie was appointed the Territorial Governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands by President Harry S. Truman; the appointment made Hastie the first black governor in the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Hastie was also appointed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit in 1949 by President Truman, this particular appointment made Hastie the first black to serve as an appellate judge, a position he served in for twenty-two years. In 1950, he was confirmed and commissioned by the United States as an appellate judge, but was never appointed to the Supreme Court because he was a black man. In 1968, Hastie became the Chief Judge of the Third Circuit Court. Hastie died in 1976, but not before breaking barriers, as well as fighting for the rights of blacks in America. He used his passion for his people and the prominence of his legal positions to help make significant changes in the legal system for blacks in the U.S. Judge William Henry Hastie, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
On September 24, 1825, Frances Ellen Watkins was born in Baltimore, Maryland to parents who were freed from slavery. Harper was her parent’s only child; not much is known about her father and her mother died when she was three years old. She was orphaned until she was adopted by her aunt Harriet and Uncle Rev. William Watkins; many of Rev. Watkins’ jobs included teaching, head of the Academy for Negro Youth, preaching, shoe making, medicine, and a civil rights activist. Harper was well educated at her uncles Academy for Negro Youth; after graduation she would become a seamstress. Working as a seamstress for a white family she took advantage of her access to the multitude of books and began reading as much as she could. She would soon begin writing poetry which led to her composing and publishing her first book of poems, Forrest Leaves, in 1845. Harper had strong relationships with legendary abolitionist William Still and William Lloyd Garrison which helped her get the best support in publishing and selling her book. She would also become a popular speaker on the anti-slavery lecture tour, her popularity allowed her to earn enough money to contribute to funding the Underground Railroad.
Harper published her second book titled Poems On Miscellaneous Subjects in 1854, which became a very popular book being reprinted a number of times. She published a short story titled “The Two Officers” in Anglo-African Magazine in 1859; this publication would make her the first black woman to publish a short story. Iola Leroy is the name of the book that is considered her first novel which was published in 1888. In 1892 the book was published under a new title, Shadows Uplifted. She used her writings to help bring attention to the social issues the plagued black Americans regularly. Harper would move to Ohio in 1850 and became the first female teacher at the Union Seminary. The Union Seminary was established by the AME Church along with Wilberforce University, which is the first black college in the United States. Harper was able to use her oratory skills once again when becoming a lecturer and member of the American Anti-Slavery Society. Her first lecture was so successful that it led to her touring with the society for the next two years, a stint that lasted into the 1860’s.
The abolition of slavery and women’s suffrage were two of the many causes Harper gave her attention to. She was well known for writing her letter to famous abolitionist John Brown and publishing her popular poem “Bury Me In A Free Land”. She refused to give up her seat to a white person on a segregated trolley in 1858, she became another black woman who was disrespected by white America and forgotten. She was brave enough to make sure she included fighting for the rights of black women in her speech at the National Women’s Rights Convention, in 1866. Usually black women’s rights are overlooked or excluded from the women’s rights fight. She published poems in 1872 titled Sketches of Southern Life which was written to bring attention to the dire living conditions of free blacks.
She became very popular for her activity in many organizations created to help improve the living and social conditions of black Americans. She worked extensively with the National Woman’s Christian Temperance Union; she believed the organization could manipulate federal power to help her causes. She fought tirelessly for the rights and protection of women, especially black women and became a mentor to influential women such as Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Kate D. Chapman, Victoria E. Matthews, and Mary Shadd Cary. Harper joined forces with Mary Church Terrell in 1894 to form the National Association of Colored Women. The organization was formed when Harper became disenchanted with white feminist, Frances Willard, because she overlooked black women’s issues for white women’s issues. In 1860, Frances Ellen Watkins married Mr. Fenton Harper and they both lived on their farm in Ohio. Harper was a brave woman who often put the safety of others before her own safety. She would challenge white supremacy as often as she could, with all her might. Harper died in 1911, but left an honorable legacy of elite artistry and social activism. Mrs. Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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