On June 28th, 1903, Malcolm Ivan Meredith Nurse was born in Tacarigua, Trinidad, to parents James Hubert Alphonso Nurse and Anna Susanna Symister. James Nurse was the great-grandson of an Asante warrior from Ghana, who was enslaved in Barbados. James worked as a schoolmaster. Anna Symister’s roots trace back to Antigua, and she worked as a naturalist. He spent his early educational years attending grade school in Trinidad’s capital city, Port-of-Spain, before attending Port-of-Spain’s government-assisted selective Catholic secondary school, St Mary’s College. After attending St Mary’s College for two years, Padmore transferred to Pamphylian High School, where he would earn his high school diploma in 1918. For the next five years, Padmore was able to hone his writing skills working as a reporter for the Trinidad Publishing Company. Even though he was working and making money for himself, he wanted to further his education. Padmore decided to immigrate to the United States in 1924 to study medicine. He would land in Nashville, Tennessee, and attend Fisk University to further his medical studies. 1924, is also the year that Padmore would marry a woman named Julia Semper who lived with him in the U.S. and they produced a daughter named Blyden. Padmore would leave Fisk University and move to New York City, New York to attend New York University, before transferring to Howard University in Washington, D.C.
While attending Howard University, Padmore was introduced to the Workers Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA). He officially became a member of the CPUSA in 1927, before joining the party, he changed his name from Malcolm Ivan Meredith Nurse to George Padmore. He participated in the party’s American Negro Labor Congress, a movement used to organize and advance the rights of African Americans via the communist party. Padmore’s work within the communist party was being noticed by communist politician Wimmiam Z. Foster. Foster recommended Padmore to the party as a future leader, so Padmore was rewarded by going to Moscow, Russia to give a report to the Communist International about the formation of the Trade Union Unity League. Padmore’s report was pleasing to the Communist International so he was asked to head the Negro Bureau of the Red International of Labor Unions, also known as Profintern. His popularity was growing, and his responsibilities were increasing as well. He was elected to serve on the Moscow City Soviet Workers Council. Padmore would also begin using his writing skills and Profintern’s resources to write and distribute literature in pamphlets to the people of Russia. He would also write in Moscow’s newspaper the Moscow Daily News, which was an English-language newspaper. As one of the principal organizers for Profintern, he contributed to the organizing of an international conference that was held in Hamburg, Germany. As a result of the conference, black labor leaders from across Africa, and throughout countries along the Atlantic coast, gathered to form the International Trade Union Committee of Negro Workers (ITUCNW). The organization’s mission was said to be a transnational platform for the African people it served.
During this time, Padmore moved from Moscow, Russia, to Vienna, Austria where he worked as the editor for a newspaper owned by the ITUCNW called The Negro Worker. Padmore was living in Hamburg, Germany in 1931, where he produced a great amount of literature for the ITUCNW, such as magazines and pamphlets, to help push the message of liberation for African people. Padmore’s relationship with the communist party was coming to an end. The Nazi Party had taken control over Germany by 1933, the office of The Negro Worker newspaper was raided by Nazi extremist groups looking to suppress any movement that wasn’t in support of the Nazi Party. Because of the Nazi Party gaining power, Padmore was deported to England, the ITUCNW was disabled, and The Negro Worker newspaper was suspended. Later in 1933, Padmore became aware of the Comintern’s intent to become aligned with colonial powers that oppressed African people, so he gave up his membership with the ITUCNW. After renouncing his membership with the ITUCNW, he refused to explain his actions to the International Control Commission, so he was dismissed from the communist party and the communist movement in 1934. Padmore was also prohibited from entering the United States because of his ties to the communist party. Now living in France, Padmore continued to write and find other means of support for the liberation of African people. With the help of British heiress and writer Nancy Cunard, and the Lawrence and Wishart publishing company, Padmore was able to write and publish his book How Britain Rules Africa in 1936. He was also one of the few men of African descent, at the time, to publish a book in the UK. And the book was popular enough to be translated into German.
1934, was also the year Padmore moved to London, England, and joined a group of savvy and skilled African writers using their pens to articulate and push ideas of Pan-Africanism throughout the diaspora. He was able to reunite with a childhood friend, the influential Mr. C.L.R. James, who was cementing himself as a stout Pan-Africanist, writer, and speaker. Padmore became the chairperson for the International African Service Bureau (IASB), an organization founded by James, and a platform Padmore could use to continue his fight for African people globally. Padmore was serving in an organization with people such as Amy Ashwood Garvey and Jomo Kenyatta. Writing became the vehicle Padmore and his colleagues decided to use to spread ideas of independence and Pan-Africanism across the diaspora. Accompanied by Jomo Kenyatta, Kwame Nkrumah, and Peter Abrahams, Padmore, and his colleagues produced a large amount of literature ranging from pamphlets to books.
1945, was the year C.L.R. James was instrumental in the meeting of George Padmore and Kwame Nkrumah in London, England. It was also the year that Padmore organized the Manchester Pan-African Conference, which was the fifth Pan-African Conference, attended by African leaders from around the globe. The mission of this conference was to create a comprehensive plan to decolonize African people and nations globally. Padmore’s relationship with James and other writers in London became strained over time, there is even evidence of writings describing each other in unflattering words. Padmore was able to maintain his relationship with Nkrumah and was even able to become a writer for the Accra Evening News publication in 1947. In 1953, he wrote the book The Gold Coast Revolution. He followed that book by publishing Pan-Africanism or Communism? In 1954. Padmore moved to Ghana to become an advisor for Nkrumah, but it didn’t last long because of health reasons. He moved back to London to receive treatment for cirrhosis of the liver. George Padmore died on September 23rd, 1959. He received many honors, dedications, and awards for his contributions to African people. In total, he published thirteen works of literature and contributed to hundreds of magazine articles, newspaper articles, and pamphlets, to help African people gain their independence globally. Mr. Malcolm Ivan Meredith Nurse, aka, George Padmore, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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Joseph interviews Julius W. Garvey, M.D., the leader of the @Justice4Garvey effort. Dr. Garvey is the youngest son of the Honorable Marcus Garvey. In 1923, Marcus Garvey was falsely convicted of mail fraud, evidence was found that the conviction had no merit, but it is the year 2021 and his name still isn't exonerated. We will learn more about the @Justice4Garvey effort, Marcus Garvey, Dr. Julius Garvey, and much much more. Tune in.
Julius W. Garvey, M.D. is a New York-based retired Board-certified Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgeon. He is affiliated with Northwell Health System and is a Clinical Associate Professor of Surgery at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He has been on several educational and medical missions to Ghana, Senegal, Uganda, Mali, Sierra Leone, Jamaica, Haiti, South Sudan, and Ethiopia. Dr. Garvey has been internationally schooled in England, Canada, Jamaica, and the US. He is regularly invited to lecture on the life and legacy of his father, the Honorable Marcus Mosiah Garvey, and attended the opening ceremony of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture which includes an exhibit on the life and legacy of his father, Marcus Mosiah Garvey. The Justice4Garvey effort is on Twitter @Justice4Garvey asking President Biden to exonerate Marcus Garvey by granting a posthumous Presidential pardon.
On July 12th, 1912, Aoua Keita was born in Bamako, French Sudan, to parents Karamogo Keita and Miriam Coulibaly. Karamogo Keita was a veteran from Guinea who fought for the French in World War I, upon returning to Mali, he contributed to work in a lab to support his family. Miriam Coulibaly was from the Ivory Coast and spoke the Dioula dialect. She was said to be a very traditional woman who believed men were superior to women, women didn’t pursue education, and men made all the important decisions. Aoua’s family was financially stable and her father was able to support a polygamous household. It was widely believed that her paternal family was descendants of the founder of Mali Sundiata Keita, which gave them high social status. Aoua’s father allowed her to attend school and earn an education. She first attended Bamako’s first girls’ school École des filles, before she attended Bamako’s boarding school Foyer des Métisses, where she earned a diploma at the age of sixteen. Later in 1928, she moved to Dakar to study to become a Midwife at the École de Médecine de Dakar; Dakar was the capital city of Mali at the time. Aoua was a young progressive woman who still understood the importance of holding on to some of her cultural practices. She was one of the few women in Sudan who was educated, she came from a high social class, and she was an influential person in the society of Dakar.
Aoua’s next move was to the city of Gao where she worked for an administrative outpost for twelve years. In addition to her work at the outpost, she would use her skills in sewing and her experience as a midwife to help the women of Gao. Aoua learned to speak the dialect of the people of Gao which helped her to build trust with the women so she could serve them to the best of her abilities. There was a high death rate in Gao among the mothers and babies because of birthing traditions that were not considered sterile. Aoua was able to observe several births before she was invited to assist a woman in birthing her child. It didn’t take long before the word spread of how great Aoua was in helping mothers have healthy and safe births. Using her education and the knowledge she had of traditional medical practices, Aoua combined the two practices to create an approach that would allow her to be able to help more of the women of Gao. Initially, the women of Gao didn’t accept Aoua's approach or practices, but over time her reputation grew and trust with the women strengthened, and her home even became a popular meeting place.
In 1935, Aoua married a man named Dr. Daouda Diawara who helped to cultivate her interest and knowledge in the political processes of the country. Aoua and Dr. Diawara believed that all Europeans should be kicked off of the African Continent because of the oppression and terror they brought to African lands and people. The couple then joined the political party the Union Sudanaise du Rassemblement Démocratique Africain or USRDA in 1946. As a member of the USRDA Aoua used her social gatherings and midwifery practice to help spread the word of the social work the USRDA was doing, and to help increase membership. Because of the social and political work of the USRDA, 1946 was also the first year that the women of Sudan were able to vote. The USRDA used the 1946 Sudanese election to make its presence known in the country. The candidates that represented the organization were not elected to any political positions, but the people of the country knew who they were. Aoua’s marriage to Dr. Diawara was coming to an end. Aoua could not bear children and the oppressive customs in Sudan weighed heavily on their relationship because Aoua believed women should not have to follow oppressive customs.
The couple divorced after twelve years of marriage, she would later marry a man named Mahamane Alassane Haidara who was a Sudanese Senator, and Aoua became more of a force within the Sudanese community and political scene. The Union of Salaried Women of Bamako was founded by Aoua and Aissata Sow in 1957. The organization was created to give the women of Sudan a greater political position and voice to gain more rights. She was also instrumental in the founding of the Federation of Black African Workers. She was asked to be a part of the writing of the constitution of the Federation of Mali, as they were gaining their independence in 1958. The political party the Bamako Women’s Bureau was established in 1958 by Aoua and other Sudanese women. The Bureau was created to address the political interest of the women of Sudan. Aoua was elected as the first woman to serve in the National Assembly of the Republic of Mali. The first president of Mali was overthrown within nine years because he was not collaborating with foreign governments that could provide monetary aid.
Following the coup of the President, Aoua resigned from her elected position in the National Assembly. She moved back to her hometown of Bamako where she would spend the rest of her days. While in Bamako, Aoua wrote her autobiography titled African Woman in 1975. Four years later she would die, but not before she gave her country as much as she could in the fight for the equality of the women of Sudan. As a young girl receiving her education, she began to understand that women were just as much human as men and deserved to be treated as a human and not a second-class citizen. To Mrs. Aoua Keita, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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In the early 7th century, the Byzantine Empire was losing its control over North Africa and the Mediterranean. Within the Byzantine Empire existed the Jrāwa Zenata tribe of Northwest Africa. The Jrāwa Zenata tribe was a Christian nomadic Berber tribe, one of the larger Berber tribes of North Africa. The Arabs were sweeping through North Africa conquering any people opposing their expansion. The remaining Berber Kingdom was led by a man named Kusayla, who recently defeated Arab forces and claimed the city of Qayrawan. In 688, Kusayla faced an Arab commander named Zuhayr ibn Qays al-Balawi in battle. Kusayla tried to use the mountainous region of Mams to give his army an advantage, but he was eventually defeated and the Arabs claimed more North African territory. Both Berber and Arab armies suffered significant damage and deaths due to several hard-fought battles. The Arabs withdrew from Berber territory to recuperate their forces. The Umayyad Dynasty under the rule of Abd al-Malik took a four-year break from warring with the Berbers to renew his army and naming Hassan ibn al-Numan as the new commander of his army and Governor of the North African territory they recently conquered. Under the command of Hassan, the Arab army took the city of Qayrawan and also conquered the city of Carthage. Many of the defeated Berbers were forced to relocate to other areas of North African or even occupy islands within the Mediterranean.
The Arabs were on a quest to control all of North Africa, all that remained in their way was a Berber resistance led by a woman named Dihya or al-Kahina. We don’t have any information about the birth of al-Kahina, but we do know she was a Berber of the Jrāwa Zenata tribe, and the tribe may have converted to Christianity because of her. The names of al-Kahina’s parents are said to be Matiya and Tatit, but I have not confirmed the names with any sources. After the defeat of Kusayla, al-Kahina became the leader of the Berber army. It is believed that she was able to become the leader of the army because of her mixed heritage which gave her rank over the remaining Berbers. She was known as a prophetess who received divine inspiration from God to fight for her empire. al-Kahina was leading her army to many victories and was controlling the strongest army in North Africa next to the Arab army. Hassan learned of the strong army led by a woman named al-Kahina and wanted to challenge her. He believed his army was the strongest and also looked to dispose of any remaining Berber forces. Similar to the Arab forces, al-Kahina’s territory grew larger as she defeated her opponents. She was now in control of the area of the Aures Mountains but the Arabs were encroaching upon her territory, which led to her first attack on the Arab army. 698, was the year that the “Queen of the Berbers,” al-Kahina led an attack at the Meskiana River in Algeria.
Hassan suffered an embarrassing defeat at the hands of al-Kahina and her Berber army. The Berber attack was so severe that it redirected, then halted Arab battle plans, killed hundreds of soldiers, and captured eighty Arab soldiers as prisoners. al-Kahina was well respected by Hassan after the first defeat. She would face and defeat Hassan in two other battles, further cementing her title as “Queen of the Berbers”, and reinforcing the fierceness of the Berber army. Hassan was defeated three times by al-Kahina’s army, so she returned her army to Ifriqiya. Meanwhile, a defeated Hassan was waiting for a chance to catch the Berbers at a weak moment so he would have a greater chance of victory. Sources say after defeating Hassan, al-Kahina attempted to form a healthy political relationship with the Arabs, but the Arabs rejected her attempt. Due to their rejection, al-Kahina implemented what is called a scorched earth policy, to damage the lands that she believed the Arabs wanted to conquer. Burning the lands created enemies within the Berber army and among the Berber people who depended on the lands for their livelihood. A number of the Berbers left Ifriqiya, some threw themselves upon the mercy of Hassan to save them. Only a small number of Berbers remained loyal to al-Kahina. Her army was fractured and her people were doubting her leadership, even though they were unconquered because of her leadership. Hassan had the advantage he needed. Around 699, Hassan led an army of twenty-four thousand troops into the city of Ifriqiya aided by the Berbers who were unhappy with al-Kahina. Her army was outmatched and eventually defeated by Hassan. To save the lives of her sons, she instructed them to join the Arab army. Because of Arab customs, her sons were welcomed into the army and appointed to serve as officers. Members of al-Kahina’s army were able to join the Arab army after al-Kahina’s defeat. It is said that she died in battle near a well in the city of Tabarka, in the Aures Mountains, fighting for her freedom and the freedom of her people. To The Queen of the Berbers, al-Kahina, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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On July 24th, 1807, Ira Frederick Aldridge was born in New York City, New York to parents Reverend Daniel and Luranah Aldridge. Reverend Daniel Aldridge preached at the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church and also worked as a vendor on the streets of New York. There isn’t much information about Luranah Aldridge, but we do know she and her husband raised their family during New York’s Jim Crow Era. At the age of thirteen, Aldridge began his studies at the African Free School, a school founded for the children of slaves and free blacks. While attending the African Free School, Aldridge studied grammar, writing, mathematics, geography, astronomy, and theater. He developed a love for theater and would satisfy his desire to attend plays by watching as many plays as he could from the balcony of New York’s Park Theater. Hewould also be able to attend plays at the African Grove Theater. Aldridge’s experience as a student attending the African Free School afforded him the opportunity to receive a quality education, be exposed to the arts, and become classmates with men such as Charles L. Reason, George T. Downing, and Henry H. Garnet. In 1821, the African Grove Theater created a group called the African Company which included Ira Aldridge, this was his first professional acting experience. William Henry Brown and James Hewlet were the co-founders of the African Grove Theater, they gave Aldridge and many other black actors a platform to showcase their talents.
As an actor at the African Grove Theater, Aldridge earned roles in a number of plays sharpening his skills for a future even he was unaware of. The African Grove Theater was under attack by the white citizens of New York, white gangs, the police, and their main opponent was a newspaper editor and sheriff named Mordecai Manuel Noah. They harassed the actors and the owners of the theater constantly, the actors engaged in street fights to defend themselves and the theater. Despite the harassment, Aldridge was able to debut in the play Pizarro, written by Richard Brinsley Sheridan. He also earned other lead roles and his star was starting to shine. The African Grove Theater didn’t exist long because of the constant harassment they experienced, the harassment and fights also led to Aldridge traveling to Europe to continue his acting career. In 1824, Aldridge arrived in Liverpool, England, traveling along with him were actors known as the Wallack brothers. Aldridge made his professional acting debut in England in May of 1825 at the age of seventeen playing Othello. His next debut was at the Royal Coburg Theater in London. This debut was seen to be the debut that helped Aldridge become a popular actor in London. He then earned the lead role in the play The Revolt of Surinam, where he played the lead role of Oroonoko.
One of Aldridge’s challenges was breaking the idea of what “African Theater” was. A so-called white comedian named Charles Matthews introduced white audiences to “African Theater” by exposing them to a Menstrual performance. The performances caused the white audiences to believe what they saw was authentic theater performed by African people. Aldridge was such a skilled actor that even though the white audiences attended the play expecting a menstrual show, they left with respect for Ira Aldridge, his acting skills, and black actors. His performances of Othello would leave audiences entranced by how moving and authentic his performance was. At the end of his performances, Aldridge would speak to the audience about a number of social and cultural issues that negatively affected African Americans and African people globally. As an abolitionist, Aldridge used his platform to bring attention to the plight of his people and his messages were well received. He began touring Europe in 1828, making his first stop in the city of Coventry where his acting skills were praised so much that he was made manager of the Coventry Theater, and became the first manager of the theater to be a black person from America. Aldridge used his platform at the Coventry to speak out against slavery, his speeches were so electrifying and poignant, that the people in London who supported him petitioned the British Parliament to abolish slavery in the British Kingdom. Around 1831, Aldridge traveled to Dublin, Ireland, Bath, England, and Edinburgh, Scotland, leaving behind captivated audiences who sang his praise. The use of different monikers would help Aldridge raise his profile as an actor, the popularity helped him land roles in plays in the city of Exmouth, England, before traveling to Brussels, Belgium. He then began touring throughout Europe where his performances were praised, he even presented to the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and performing for King William IV of Prussia. His successful performances led to him being asked to perform in Budapest, Serbia, and Russia. In 1824, Aldridge met and married a woman named Margaret Gill who he was married to for forty years. Aldridge produced a son from a relationship outside of his marriage which led to him being sued by the actor William Stothard.
1864 was the year of Margaret Gill’s death. In 1865, Aldridge married a woman named Amanda von Brandt, the couple produced four children and lived between Russia and Europe; Aldridge was known for traveling to England often. In 1867, Ira Aldridge died while visiting Poland, after recently completing a seventy-city tour of France. The Polish sculptor Marian Konieczny created a plaque to mark the place of Aldridge’s death. Because of his amazing skill and his social activism, Aldridge received several honors and awards, such as the Prussian Gold Medal for Arts and Sciences, the Golden Cross of Leopold, the Maltese Cross, a bronze plaque at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, etc. The Howard University Department of Theater Arts is named after Aldridge. He was named one of the 100 greatest African Americans by Molefi Kete Asante. Several acting troupes popped up over the U.S. that included Aldridge’s name within their titles, the most popular were in Washington D.C., Philadelphia, and Connecticut. Ira Aldridge was a force to be reckoned with. He not only displayed to the world his phenomenal acting abilities, but he directly challenged negative stereotypes of African people, changed the way some Europeans viewed African people, pubicaly opposed slavery, and set the standard for actors who would play the character of Othello. Mr. Ira Aldridge, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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On February 25th, 1894, William Leo Hansberry was born in Gloster, Mississippi, to parents Elden Hayes and Pauline Hansberry. His father Elden Hayes was a noted history professor at Alcorn A&M College, Mr. Hayes died when William was three years old leaving behind two sons and their mother. William Hansberry was the older brother of the famed civil rights activist and real estate broker Carl Augustus Hansberry, who is the father of author Loraine Hansberry. After the death of his father, William Hansberry acquired his father’s library of history books, which he studied daily, and started him on a path that would inspire generations of African people to learn their past. In 1915, Hansberry began his freshman year at Atlanta University equipped with the knowledge he gained from reading his father’s books about ancient Rome and Greece but was exposed to information about ancient civilizations on the continent of Africa, which piqued his interest and he had to learn more. His interest was further piqued after reading “The Negro” by W.E.B. Dubois, the book exposed Hansberry to other black historical authors and books on the history of Africa. Using the references included within “The Negro” he searched for the books listed but was disappointed when he learned Atlanta University didn’t have the resources to properly study ancient African civilizations. Inspired by “The Negro” he decided to transfer to Harvard University in 1917 to further his studies of Ancient Africa.
Unfortunately, Atlanta University couldn’t meet his needs, but he was able to transfer to Harvard to take advantage of their resources, which he would use to empower African people. Hansberry graduated from Harvard with a bachelor’s degree in 1921, then moved to New Orleans, Louisiana to become a history professor at Straight College, before accepting a position at Howard University to become a history professor. It was at Howard University that Hansberry created his African societies curriculum, along with creating the African Civilizations Section of the Howard history department. Hansberry was holding true to his mission of gaining as much information about African civilizations so his people could be able to learn about their own history. Hansberry’s impact was beginning to be felt throughout America’s African American community. The African societies curriculum he created was no longer only being taught at Howard, other African American colleges were using his curriculum to educate their students about their history. Hansberry was able to travel to many colleges and universities giving lectures with pictures of Ancient African civilizations, inspiring faculty, and staff, which led to the institutions using his curriculum.
1925, began the decline of the relationship between Professor William Leo Hansberry and Howard University. That year, a symposium on “The Cultures and Civilizations of Negro Peoples in Africa” was sponsored by Howard, Hansberry, and his students presented 28 remarkable papers on evidence they gathered to prove the validity of the existence of ancient African civilizations. They were so impressive that they even provided actual archeological evidence of the existence of these civilizations. Hansberry and his students presented breakthrough evidence and information, but the administration at Howard University directly challenged the validity of Hansberry and his student’s findings. They were even challenged by the president of the university. The Howard administration was not happy with the information Hansberry and his team presented, they challenged the information on every level, the information was found to be credible, but Hansberry was still demoted and unable to gain his tenure. It’s amazing that a black man, at a black institution of higher learning, was punished for teaching black students about black history. Hansberry would go on to earn his master’s degree from Harvard University in 1932. Along the way to earning his master’s, he was able to study at Oxford University and the Chicago Oriental Institute; his reputation for being an expert on the history of African civilizations was spreading rapidly. Hansberry was traveling the globe lecturing about African civilizations and his reputation was growing so much that Howard promoted him to an associate professor position which gave him tenure.
At this time, Hansberry was one of, if not, the world’s authority on ancient African civilizations, he was so knowledgeable that he was unable to earn a Ph.D. because no one at the university he attended had enough information to approve his dissertation. Hansberry was not only a world-recognized authority on the history of ancient African civilizations, but he was a mentor to many students who would become prominent figures throughout the world, Kwame Nkrumah and Nnamdi Azikiwe are his two most notable students. Nkrumah would become the first prime minister and president of Ghana, and Azikiwe would become the first president of Nigeria. Nkrumah, Azikiwe, and admirers all around understood the importance of Hansberry’s work and sought to help him in many ways publish and distribute his information. Hansberry was honored in 1963 as an academic center was named after him. He received the first Haile Selassie Prize, for his continuous work in revealing Ethiopian history, but his work was still being challenged by the administration at Howard University. A faculty or administration member accused Hansberry of teaching African history with no proof to validate his information, once again Hansberry had to defend his work, delaying his tenure, which he didn’t gain until 1938. 1959, was the year Hansberry retired from Howard University, leaving behind a strained relationship with the institution, but also blazing a historical path many historians behind him were able to travel. Hansberry died in 1965. Before his death, he prepared manuscripts for books but did not publish them. “Pillars in Ethiopian History” was published in 1974, and “Africa and Africans as Seen by Classical Writers” were published in 1977. Professor William Leo Hansberry, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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On January 1, 1923, Westly Wallace Law was born in Savannah, Georgia to parents Westly Law and Geneva Wallace. W.W. Law was the eldest of three children and grew up in poor conditions on the West side of Savannah. Around the age of ten, his father died so he began working to help support his family. During this early phase of his life and even throughout his life, he was greatly influenced by his mother, his grandmother, Ralph Mark Gilbert, and John S. Delaware. The influence of John Delaware led him to become a member of the NAACP Youth Council as a high school student. During this time he participated in a desegregation protest at Savannah’s Grayson Stadium, and also participated in the hiring of a black disc jockey at a white-owned radio station. He attended Georgia State College, which is now Savannah State University, where he became the president of the NAACP Youth Council; while he was serving his community he and his mother were working where they could to pay for Law’s education. Law’s mother washed and ironed clothes for white families while Law worked at what was considered Savannah’s white YMCA. After his freshman year of college, he was drafted into the U.S. Army to serve as a soldier in World War II. He served three years in the Army which helped to pay for his education, meaning neither he nor his mother needed to work to pay for his education.
Law earned his bachelor’s degree in biology, he then gained a job at the Savannah Postal Service, a job he would hold for over thirty years. In addition to working for the postal service, he served as the scoutmaster for Savannah’s Boy Scout Troop 49, taught Sunday School, and was still the president of the local NAACP chapter. W.W. Law, along with Reverend L. Scott Stell and a committee of others filed a segregation lawsuit against the Chatham County Schools; Chatham County is the county Savannah resides in. The lawsuit was filed before the U.S. district court, U.S. district judge Frank Scarlett oversaw the lawsuit, but Judge Scarlett and others held the case up so long that the group of students the lawsuit was filed to help graduated from high school. Law and his committee had to refile their lawsuit supporting a different group of students; the objective of the lawsuit was to desegregate the public schools in Savannah. Because of the persistence of the Law and his committee, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals ordered the desegregation of Savannah’s public schools. Law believed in non-violent resistance to oppression, he would hold weekly meetings at Bolton Street Baptist and St. Phillip A.M.E. churches to organize his non-violent movement.
In 1960, an NAACP member was arrested for attempting to dine at the Azalea Room lunch counter. Law’s organizational and mobilizational skills were exceptional, he led a boycott against the restaurant, several protests, and wade-ins throughout Savannah and on Tybee Island. The protesters were relentless, launching protest after protest, which ultimately led to an eighteen-month boycott of Savannah’ Broughton Street. The boycott had a significant economic impact, the city of Savannah and the white merchants were forced to desegregate their businesses. During the late 1950s and early 1960s, while Law was leading non-violent boycotts and sit-ins, his contemporary Hosea Williams held a different ideology, Williams believed black people should be protecting themselves, he even created night watches to protect black neighborhoods, Law believed the night watches invited white racist to be violent against them. The relationship between Law and Williams became strained so much that Williams and his supporters left the NAACP and became members of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. During the Mayor ship of Malcolm Maclean, Law and other NAACP members were able to win more desegregation battles, desegregating the library, restaurants, public parks, and other public places. The work of Law and the NAACP allowed black people in Savannah to have more access to the city and its resources.
In 1961, Law was fired from his postal service job for his desegregation efforts, the NAACP, and even President John F. Kennedy supported Law and worked to help him regain his job after a decision was made by a three-person panel. Law retired from the Postal Service in 1976, his next mission was the preservation of the African-American history of Savannah. The Savannah-Yamacraw Branch of the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History was founded by W.W. Law to preserve Savannah’s black history. Under the leadership of Law, the association was also able to found the Ralph Mark Gilbert Civil Rights Museum, Negro Heritage Trail Tour, King-Tisdell Cottage Museum, and the Beach Institute of African American Culture. Because of Law, the African-American history of Savannah is preserved and accessible to people today. Because of his civil rights and historic preservation efforts, Law was honored by receiving the Governor's Award in the Humanities, an honorary doctorate degree from Savannah State University, the National Trust for Historic Preservation's National Preservation Award, and the Distinguished Georgian Award (1998) from the Center for the Study of Georgia History at Augusta State University. Law died in 2002, but his mark on Savannah is still visible to this day. I recently took a trip to Savannah, Georgia where I learned about W.W. Law and was able to literally see the sites and learn the black history of Savannah. I was a part of a Savannah Black Heritage Tour led by a gentleman who was mentored by W.W. Law, so Law’s legacy still lives on and will continue to live. To Mr. Westly Wallace Law, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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On August 10, 1858, Anna Julia Haywood was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, to parents Hannah Stanley Haywood and George Washington Haywood. Hannah was an enslaved black woman and George was the man who enslaved her mother. George was the son of North Carolina’s longest-serving Treasurer and co-founder of the University of North Carolina, John Haywood. Like most black women of the times, Anna worked for the Haywood's as a servant until the age of nine when she received a scholarship to attend Raleigh’s Saint Augustine's Normal School and Collegiate Institute. The Episcopal Diocese of Raleigh founded the institute to train teachers to educate formerly enslaved black people. Anna spent fourteen years at the institute and distinguished herself as a premier student in the subjects of liberal arts, mathematics, science, English literature, and she even mastered Latin, Greek, and French languages. Though the institute was designed to educate formerly enslaved people, it reserved its upper-level classes for men, until Anna challenged the institute by proving her intellectual prowess and succeeding in being admitted into the class. One of the young men in the class was George A.C. Cooper, the two would marry but George died two years into the marriage.
While completing her education at St. Augustine, Anna became a tutor for her fellow classmates. The money she earned from tutoring was used to pay for any expenses not covered by her scholarship. After graduating from St. Augustine, Anna became an instructor for the 1883 school year but taught through the 1886 school year, teaching subjects such as classics, English, vocal and instrumental music, and history. The academic route Anna was following was designed for male students, but she was determined to receive the best education available. Her next step in her academic journey was moving to Ohio to attend Oberlin College and was admitted as a sophomore because of how excellent her academic record was. She was well-rounded in her academic studies but studying music was one of the reasons she chose to attend Oberlin. She had a reputation for taking as many courses as she could because she had a thirst for knowledge, but she did not have the time or capacity to take all the classes she wanted. Anna graduated from Oberlin in 1884 and was classmates with other notable black women such as Mary Church Terrell and Ida Gibbs. Anna was a member of a literary society “LLS” who hosted events featuring orchestras, singers, and well-known lecturers. Between 1884 and 1885 Anna taught at Wilberforce College, 1885 was the year she returned to St. Augustine to teach before deciding to return to Oberlin as a graduate student earning her master’s degree in mathematics. Anna and Mary Church Terrell were the first two black women to earn a masters’ degree in 1888.
In the year 1900, she attended the First Pan-African Conference in London, England to contribute her ideas to the upliftment of African people around the world. During her time in Europe, she visited many cities and landmarks. Let’s go back a few years to the year 1892, the year Anna moved to Washington D.C. Anna, along with Helen Appo Cook, Ida B. Wells, Charlotte Forten Grimké, Mary Jane Peterson, Mary Church Terrell, and Evelyn Shaw came together to form the Colored Women’s League, an organization created to promote unity and interest in the black community. Anna took a teaching job at the M Street High School, in 1901, she was eventually named the principal of M Street High School. Her time as the principal of M Street High School was cut short because of a difference in teaching philosophy with the school's governing body. She believed in the philosophy of W.E.B. Dubois while the school was structured by the philosophy of Booker T. Washington. She would later return to the school but it was Anna once again taking a stand for what she believed could help her people. 1892 was the year Anna published her first book A Voice from the South: By a Black Woman of the South. The book was well received and also led her to have public speaking opportunities where she spoke up for the rights of black people and women. Anna was a dynamic woman, after some time speaking publicly she decided to let her pen do the talking for her. In 1883, Anna produced the classic paper "The Intellectual Progress of the Colored Women of the United States since the Emancipation Proclamation" while in Chicago, Illinois attending the World's Congress of Representative Women. As one of five black women invited to the event to speak, she surely left her mark on the hearts and minds of the audience. Anna produced another remarkable paper in 1900 titled “The Negro Problem in America.” September 5th, 1902, she set the hearts of her people on fire when she delivered her speech "The Ethics of the Negro Question."
1914 was the year that Anna began pursuing her Doctor of Philosophy degree at Columbia University but tragedy struck her family. Her brother’s wife died and she adopted their five children which caused her to stop pursuing her Ph.D. temporarily. She faced many obstacles over a ten-year period in an attempt to earn her Ph.D., she also spent that time studying and preparing her dissertation and in 1930 retiring as an educator from Washington Colored High School. Her retirement didn’t last long, soon she became the president of Frelinghuysen University in Washington D.C. She worked at the school for ten years and left the school at the age of ninety-five. Thirty years prior to leaving Frelinghuysen, at the age of sixty-five, she became the fourth black woman in American history to earn a Doctor of Philosophy Degree. Her journey that started ten years earlier finally came to an end despite all the obstacles she faced. In 1964, at the age of one-hundred-five, Anna Cooper died leaving a great legacy in academics, literature, public speaking, civil rights, and women’s rights. Several of her works were published such as A Voice From the South, Le Pèlerinage de Charlemagne, Slavery and the French revolutionists, L'attitude de la France à l'égard de l'esclavage pendant la révolution, and The Voice of Anna Julia Cooper: Including A Voice From the South and Other Important Essays, Papers, and Letters. Her writing "The Early Years in Washington: Reminiscences of Life with the Grimkés," was also published. She was born in slavery but died a free woman. Free to educate and elevate herself and as many people as she could. Miss. Anna J Haywood Cooper, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
J. A. Ward
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On January 20, 1876, Drusilla Dunjee was born in Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, to parents Rev. John William Dunjee and Lydia Ann Taylor Dunjee. Rev. Dunjee worked as a teacher and a preacher who was employed with a Normal School associated with the Baptist Missionary Association. He received a college education at Storer College in West Virginia. Drusilla was one of nine children her parents produced, and one of three who survived to grow into adults. As a young woman, Drusilla attended a preparatory school where she developed the skill of playing the classical piano and actually studied at the Northwestern Conservatory of Music in the state of Minnesota. Rev. John and Lydia Dunjee moved their family to Oklahoma City, Oklahoma in 1892, Rev. John was given a new position in Oklahoma by the Baptist Governing Board. 1892, is also the year Drusilla began teaching kindergarten until the year 1899, during this time, she was one of the first kindergarten teachers within her Oklahoma school district. Drusilla decided to pursue teaching as a career rather than the career of a musician. In 1898, she met and eloped with a man named Price Houston, the couple moved to McAlester, Oklahoma to start their life together. As a teacher in Oklahoma, Drusilla became dissatisfied with the quality of education young black boys, girls, and woman were receiving, so she opened the McAlester Seminary for Girls, a school she operated for twelve years before becoming the principal of the Oklahoma Baptist College for Girls in Sapulpa, Oklahoma, a position she held for six years.
After serving as principal of the Oklahoma Baptist College for Girls, Drusilla and her family moved back to Oklahoma City where she founded her second educational institution, the Oklahoma Vocational Institute of Fine Arts and Crafts. 1934, was the year she began working for the Oklahoma Home for Delinquent Boys as their religious director before she would begin making significant contributions to American literature and African history. In 1926, Drusilla published her groundbreaking book Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire, a book that is considered a classic and made her the first black woman to write a comprehensive multi-volume book covering the history of ancient Africa. The book was written over a twenty-five-year period as Drusilla conducted and compiled her research. During that time, she also contributed to her brother Roscoe’s newspaper the Black Dispatch, which was an important newspaper for black people. After publishing her book, Drusilla faced backlash from prominent black historians and public figures, but over time her works were confirmed to be accurate and pioneering work in revealing ancient African history, decades before a number of our well-known and beloved African scholars. As a journalist, she began her career in 1917 writing for her brother Roscoe’s then newspaper the Bookertee Searchlight before she wrote for his Black Dispatch newspaper. She also wrote for the Arizona Journal and Guide after moving to Arizona in 1935, where she continued to use her words to fight for the rights of her people as well as educate her people about their wonderful past.
Because of health reasons, Drusilla moved to Arizona but she also began to receive praise for her groundbreaking work as a historian of African history, she also became a writer whose works were being syndicated through the Associated Negro Press, an organization she would become the director of for four years. Drusilla was both an advocate and activist for her people, she used her words to educate, motivate and empower, but she actively went into her communities to help found organizations like the Oklahoma YMCA, the Red Cross, the NAACP, and the Dogan Reading Room of Oklahoma. She was honored by the Association of Black Women Historians and Black Classic Press for her work as a historian and journalist. Historians account that she wrote six total volumes of Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire but only volume two survived the years. She was also a poet and an important figure in the history of black people in America, because of her pioneering work to chronicle the history of Ancient Africa. She was the first black woman to write about the history of African people, and one of the first black people period to write about African history. She was fearless, driven, and loved her people so much she dedicated her life to educating her people, serving her people, and empowering them people through her gift of words. To Drusilla Dunjee Huston, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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Muhammad Toure was born in the mid-1400s in Senegal and was said to be in the bloodline of the Soniki people within the Songhai Empire. Little is known about Toure’s life before he gained military fame, but he gained his fame through a number of legendary victories on the battlefield. There are scholarly debates over Muhammad Toure being a part of the ruling family of Songhai or not. What we do know is during the time of Toure’s rise to fame Sonni Ali Ber was the Emperor and Founder of the Songhai Empire. Toure served as the Chief Minister to Sonni Ali until Ali’s death in 1492. Ali was succeeded by his son Abu Bakr Da’u aka Sonni Baru. Sonni Baru would only rule Songhai for one year or less because of a coup d’état led by Muhammad Toure, which was followed by Toure naming himself the Emperor of Songhai. Muhammad Toure had plans to expand the Songhai Empire, but he first had to start by reorganizing his empire, equipping it to thrive during its expansion. Toure created new positions for his ruling counsel and appointed family members and the people he trusted the most to the positions. In a strategic move to solidify his empire, he married his daughters and nieces to the prominent men and officials of the kingdoms of the Songhai Empire. Songhai expanded so rapidly that it is known as the largest empire in the history of the continent of Africa, covering 1.4 million square kilometers.
Toure wanted his empire to reflect two main things, being an Islamic empire and being an educated empire. Scholars say that other religious and spiritual paths were practiced in Songhai but Islam was declared the official religion. Timbuktu was one of Songhai’s universities and its reputation as one of the world’s leading educational centers grew under the rule of Muhammad Toure. Songhai not only housed one of the world’s leading academic centers, but they were also opening up trade agreements with Asian and European nations, which helped to increase their wealth and expand their empire even more. Toure’s rule of Songhai is known as the “Golden Age” of Muslim Scholarship at Timbuktu, scholars from around the world descended upon Timbuktu to learn. Toure’s rule was also a time when Islamic laws and ways of living began replacing the traditional African laws and ways of living. Toure is known as a well-organized leader, Timbuktu, Jenne, Masina, and Taghaza were the four areas Toure split Songhai into, each area was overseen by a governor who reported directly to Toure.
In 1496, Toure took a pilgrimage to the Islamic holy city of Mecca carrying with him the equivalent of 2.5 billion dollars worth of gold, horseman, and infantrymen. Muhammad Toure became know as Askia The Great after a victory between the years 1493 and 1496. Stories are told that he took the title Askia to mock the daughters of the men he defeated because they declared that Muhammad Toure would never be great. The Askia Dynasty was one of the Songhai Empire’s greatest and most successful dynasties, but like all things, an end must come. As Toure grew older his influence on his people grew weaker. A number of the people grew bitter because of his strict Islamic views, but his greatest threat came from within his own household. A number of Toure’s trusted advisors were killed and his life was in danger. As an old man who was losing his sight and could no longer properly defend himself, he relied heavily on his advisors. His oldest son Musa was responsible for the killings of his advisors. Musa wanted Toure’s throne and nothing would stop him. Musa was eventually able to kill Muhammad Toure and take over as the Emperor of Songhai, but the memory of Muhammad Toure would even outlive the Songhai empire. To Muhammad Toure aka Askia The Great, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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Juan de Sessa was born around 1518, his place of birth is debated by historians, but it is believed that he was either born in Spain or Ethiopia. We do know he was born from enslaved Africans of the house of Don Luiz Fernandez, the Count of Cabra, the second Duke consort of Sessa. Juan was the personal assistant to the third Duke of Sessa, Don Gonzalo, the son of Don Luiz Fernandez. Juan and Don Gonzalo were said to have been around the same age range. In 1520, Don Luiz Fernandez died, forcing his wife Dona Elvira to move her family to Granada. At the age of twelve, Juan moved to Granada with Don Gonzalo and Dona Elvira, around this time Don Gonzalo began attending school, and because Juan was his personal assistant he accompanied Gonzalo as he attended school. Pedro de Mota was an instructor at the Cathedral of Granada who taught Don Gonzalo, because Juan was constantly in attendance and also paying attention, he also gained an education, becoming proficient in Greek and Latin languages. It is said that because he mastered the Latin language that his classmates named him Juan Latino and the name stuck. Under normal circumstances of the times, Juan would have only just accompanied Don Gonzalo and not have learned much because school was presented as unattainable for enslaved people, but because Juan was eager to learn he began picking up on the lessons and even outperforming Don Gonzalo. Juan was so proficient that he was allowed to continue to study because the instructors could see how much of an asset he was to the household.
The University of Granada was founded in 1531, it is also the place where Juan and Don Gonzalo would continue their education after advancing past the Cathedral of Granada. Juan earned his Bachelor’s degree in 1546 and his Master’s degree in 1556, all while starting a family and navigating a world where slavery is still legal and racism is being defined. Juan was an educated man of African descent living in Spain less than fifty years after the Moors were expelled from Spain, and the European nations have begun building wealth from the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. To say Juan Latino was an exceptional person would be an understatement. Juan was known for his intellectual prowess and ability to teach others. He was hired to tutor Ana, the daughter of the Licenciado Carlobal, the owners of the estates of the Duke of Sessa. He was tutoring Ana in music; Ana had a reputation for her beauty and Juan had a reputation for being a lady’s man. After tutoring Ana, the two eventually married and the union was a disruption of the social classes of Spain. A man who is the son of a slave of the Duke of Sessa has married the daughter of the overseers of the Duke of Sessa. Ana and Juan produced 4 children from their union, two boys and two girls. Around 1566, Juan competed with Licenciado Villanueva for the position of Cathedral Professor of Grammar, he eventually earned the position and it was incentivized by giving him extra university privileges.
Juan Latino was breaking barriers as an African in Spain in the 1500s. He was excelling as a Professor of Grammar and gaining a reputation as a great poet, he was even able to translate the poems of Virgil into Spanish. He was creating quite a reputation of excellence for himself, he was also beginning to be seen and respected within the social circles of Granada, but no amount of success could have shielded him from the presence of racism. Black skin was still seen as inferior to his fellow white counterparts, he was often targeted and ridiculed for his skin color and social class by birth. Juan is credited with contributing to the “Golden Age” of Spanish writing because a number of the writers who pushed Spanish literature into their “Golden Age” were students of Juan Latino. His influence and views of the world helped to prepare some of the most skilled and thought-provoking writers in Spanish history. Juan was very successful in his life, he gained a lot, but he also lost a lot as well. As he aged he began to lose a number of the people who were closest to him. A number of friends and colleagues passed away, but the loss of his dear wife Ana was a devastating blow to him. Juan Latino died in 1608 at the age of 90 due to his health failing and blindness setting in. Before his death, Juan was able to defy the odds of the times. He became a prominent member of his community, and his country, even though he was the son of an enslaved African within a society that saw African people as less than human. Mr. Juan de Sessa, aka, Juan Latino, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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Wirth, N. (2007, December 09). Juan Latino (ca. 1518-ca. 1594). BlackPast.org. https://www.blackpast.org/global-african-history/latino-juan-c-1518-c-1594/
In 1833, Marcos Maceo moved to the island of Cuba, after a number of his fellow soldiers were exiled from Venezuela. Marcos Maceo was a Venezuelan soldier fighting for the Spanish in the Venezuelan War of Independence. While living in Cuba Marcos met and married a woman named Mariana Grajales y Cuello, the couple produced a son named Antonio. Antonio Maceo Grajales was born on June 14th, 1845, in the town of San Luis, Cuba. His family lived on the Jobabo farm, which was Antonio’s place of birth. His parents were very instrumental in his upbringing. His father not only was a soldier, but he was also a successful farmer who owned several farms. His mother was an iconic Afro-Cuban woman who fought for women’s rights and Cuban independence. It is said that his father taught him how to be strong, crafty, and resourceful, but his mother taught him, discipline and critical thinking. Bring the eldest of nine siblings he needed to help his family bring in money. At the age of sixteen, he began working for his father as a delivery boy for his father’s farms. During his teens is when Antonio became interested in politics; he joined a Masonic Lodge in the year 1864. As a member of the lodge, Antonio was influenced by Cuban freedom fighters who were fighting against Spain to gain their independence.
In 1868, Antonio married a woman named María Cabrales; 1868 is also the year he joined the Cuban Ten Years’ War along with his father and a few siblings. Mariana Grajales fully supported her sons and husband fighting against the Spanish for their independence. She is known as the “Mother of the Nation” because of how dedicated she was to the Cubans gaining their independence from Spain. The Ten Years’ War started after Cuban Revolutionary hero Carlos Manuel de Céspedes led a revolt known as “The Cry of Yara”. Céspedes freed the slaves he owned and they all joined together to fight Spain during “The Cry of Yara”. Antonio excelled as a soldier in the Cuban rebel army. Five months into his enlistment he was promoted to commander in the army, within the next few weeks he was promoted to lieutenant colonel, and then colonel shortly after. Antonio was a military star in the making; over his next five years and five hundred battles, he became very popular because of his success over the Spanish. He was promoted to Brigadier General then eventually Major General. Many feel that his promotion to Major General was delayed because of his skin color and his family not being of the bougie class of Cubans.
Antonio gained a reputation for being almost invincible on the battlefield, he was known as the “Bronze Titan”, he suffered more than twenty-five injuries on the battlefield but never slowed down leading his men into battle. Antonio admired the military strategies of the Dominican Major General Máximo Gómez and even adopted the use of the machete over the Spanish sword. As the “Ten Years’ War” progressed it was also coming to an end and officially ended with the signing of the Pact of Zanjón, a document Antonio opposed any Cuban rebels signing. Antonio believed that the rebels needed tangible gains from the peace talks such as the abolition of slavery and Cuban independence, not just empty promises and moral victories. The Protest of Baraguá was Antonio and his men rejecting the limited and still oppressive terms of the proposed peace treaty. A comrade of Antonio planned to ambush the Spanish general who proposed the terms of the peace treaty, Antonio rejected the ambush because he wanted his victory to be with honor. Days after meeting with the Spanish general the battle resumed but it was paramount for Antonio to escape from his post in Cuba. He eventually found himself in New York planning a Cuban invasion with Major General Calixto García Íñiguez. The planned invasion became the second of three conflicts between Cuba and Spain known as the Little War. The Spanish did an effective job of promoting racist and divisive messages against the Cubans, which caused tension to arise between the white Cubans and Afro-Cubans.
The Spanish were determined to kill Antonio while he was visiting Haiti, Jamaica, and Costa Rica. While in Costa Rica he was aided by the president and assigned to join a Costa Rican military unit as a consultant. Cuban poet and professor José Martí contacted Antonio to convince him to initiate a war thought of as the “Necessary War” or the War of 1895. Antonio was not confident in his army’s chances of victory until Marti was able to convince him that their chances of winning were higher than Antonio may have calculated. He was able to escape the capture of Spanish soldiers by going into the mountains, while in the mountains he was able to form a small group of soldiers that quickly became a small army. Antonio, Marti, and Gomez held a meeting in which Antonio and Marti disagreed on military strategy, days after the meeting Marti was killed in battle, Gomez was named the General in Chief of the Cuban Liberation Army, and Antonio became the Lieutenant General or second in command of the army. Behind the leadership of Gomez and Antonio, the Cuban liberation army traveled one-thousand miles in ninety-six days and earned numerous victories against the Spanish. Gomez organized the liberation army so well that they were overwhelming the Spanish army who had a greater number of soldiers and resources; the guerrilla warfare took a toll on the Spanish army.
The cruel treatment of the Spanish towards the Cuban people encourage more able Cubans to join the Cuban Independence Army. A great number of Cubans were placed in concentration camps by the Spanish, which was the fuel needed to encourage more Cubans to fight against the Spanish. The Cuban Liberation Army was earning victories over the Spanish on both the East and West sides of the island. December 7th, 1896, Antonio and his personal escorts were moving in on Spanish territory and attempting to create an entrance for his army into Spanish territory when they were fired upon and Antonio was struck by two bullets that took his life. He was initially buried in a secret location but his remains were later moved to the Monumento El Cacahual in Havana, Cuba, and honored as a military hero. Antonio is remembered as one of Cuba’s greatest military heroes and fighters for the abolition of slavery and the independence of all Cubans, he even was aware enough to fight the underlying racism Afro-Cubans faced from white Cubans. He was the son of a military hero and Cuban independence icon, and he took the lessons from his parents to help lead his people closer to their true independence. To the legendary Antonio Maceo Grajales, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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In the early 1800s, a young girl named Carlota was kidnaped from her Yoruba village in Nigeria and transported to Mantanzas, Cuba. While living in Cuba, she was sold to a sugarcane plantation in Triumvarato where the conditions were poor and inhumane. Carlota was strong-willed and vigilant, she refused to let her conditions break her. In 1843 Carlota met a fellow slave girl named Fermina who planned an uprising. Carlota was willing and able to help Fermina raid the plantation to gain their freedom. Unfortunately, the plantation owners learned of Fermina’s plans, she was beaten and locked in jail.
Carlota was not deterred by Fermia’s incarceration; she used the talking drum to communicate to the others about her plans. The slaves would often use their drums as a safe way to communicate with each other. Using the drums Carlota organized a raid on the plantation which helped to free Fermina and others from jail. November 5th, 1843, is said to be the date the slaves led by Carlota launched their yearlong raid against the whites and plantation owners. The slaves used guerilla tactics to attack the whites which helped them to gain victories for a short while. Ultimately, Carlota and her comrades were captured and executed by the Spanish plantation owners.
She would inspire future uprisings against slavery and oppression. Her ideas and passion did not die with her; they were continued by those who shared her vision. Even though Carlota was not successful in the end, she represents the spirit of freedom, the spirit of liberty. Humans were born to be free and she was not going to lie down and accept her conditions. She possessed brains, tact, skill, courage, leadership, and a love for her people. Ms. Carlota Lukumi, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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On February 29, 1892, Augusta Christine Fells was born in Green Cove Springs, Florida, to parents Edward Fells and Cronella Murphy. Augusta was the seventh of fourteen children and developed a love for art at an early age. Her father was a Methodist Preacher who believed sculpting was a sin because it was the creation of graven images. As a result of his beliefs, Augusta stated that she received a whopping four or five times a week. Augusta and her family moved to West Palm Beach, Florida where she attended a new high school. Her attending this new school was pivotal because the principal helped her to develop as an artist. As a senior in high school, the principal paid her a dollar a day to teach classes on molding clay. Augusta turned sixteen years old in 1907, this was also the year she married her first husband Mr. John T. Moore, and the couple produced a baby girl Irene Connie Moore. Unfortunately, years later Mr. Moore died which made Augusta a teenage widow. In 1915, Augusta married a carpenter named James Savage who she remained married to until their divorce in the early to mid-1920s. Augusta did not allow her personal issues to distract her from doing what she loved, which was sculpting masterful pieces of art from clay. Her continued sculpting led her to earn a display booth at the Palm Beach County Fair where her sculpture won a twenty-five dollar prize for the most original piece.
Augusta eventually won her father’s support after she sculpted figures of the Virgin Mary and other religious figures. With new confidence, Augusta moved to Jacksonville, FL with hopes of sculpting busts of prominent black figures. She failed miserably and needed to create another plan of action for herself. Augusta began attending Florida Agricultura & Mechanical College for Negroes, which is now The Florida Agricultural & Mechanical University, a place where your dreams can come true if you take the right steps and believe. Augusta won first prize in a county fair in Tallahassee, FL for her sculptures, the commissioner of the county fair recommended her as a student who should study art in New York City at The Cooper Union, a private art college. Augusta thrived at Cooper Union, she thrived so much that she was awarded a scholarship just to pay her bills and live. At Cooper Union, Augusta had the privilege of studying under the well-known sculptor George Brewster, she also completed a four-year program in three years. Her name was starting to spread around New York City as a talented sculptor, it spread so much that Augusta was now sculpting busts for W.E.B. DuBois and the Honorable Marcus Garvey. 1923, was the year that Augusta married her third husband Mr. Robert L. Poston, a member of Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association, unfortunately, Mr. Poston died of pneumonia aboard a ship in 1924.
Later in 1924, Augusta applied for a scholarship to attend a special summer art program in France, she was very qualified and the committee wanted her to attend until they learn she was a black woman. After being denied because of her race, Augusta used the local newspapers to get the story out about her being discriminated against, but it didn’t sway the committee of the art camp to change their minds. Augusta would face more tragedy, her father became paralyzed, then her family’s house was destroyed by a hurricane, she was forced to move her family into her cramped New York apartment. Augusta’s luck seemed to start to change when she was offered a scholarship to attend the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Rome, Italy, but was unable to raise enough funds to travel to Italy and live. In 1928, her sculpture Head of a Negro won the Otto Khan prize at the Harmon Foundation exhibition of 1928. Augusta understood her platform and understood that she needed to use her voice as well as her hands to speak up about injustices. She was very outspoken about the white artist and critics fetishizing black art through a “negro primitive” lens. She also believed that the white art world lacked respect and an honest view of black art. Between 1928 and 1930, a picture of Augusta’s sculpture Gamin made the cover of Opportunity Magazine, members of the Julius Rosenwald Fund saw the magazine cover then gave Augusta a scholarship of $1,800 to study in Paris, France. Augusta’s dream of studying with the greatest sculptures and artist in the world actually came true. While in Paris she worked and studied with Felix Benneteau; she would later write that the experience with Benneteau was no ideal and she eventually began teaching herself more about sculpting. Augusta went on to attend one of the leading art schools in Paris the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, where she excelled, winning multiple awards and traveling Europe displaying her art.
In 1931, Augusta made her return to the U.S. during the Great Depression, which meant it was hard for her to find work as a sculptor. She began working as a teacher and was able to sculpt busts for Frederick Douglas, W.C. Handy, and James Weldon Johnson. She became the first black woman to be elected to the National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors. She then opened her own art studio in Harlem, NY, the Savage Art Studio, which was a place that helped to nurture future young black artists such as Gwendolyn Knight, Kenneth B. Clark, Norman Lewin, and Jacob Lawrence. The Savage Art Studio eventually became the Harlem Community Art center that served over one thousand and five-hundred people in the community. With a commission from the Board of Design of the New York World’s Fair, she sculpted a sixteen-foot sculpture titled “Lift Every Voice And Sing” also known as “The Harp”, which was inspired by the Negro National Anthem. Augusta opened two art galleries but was unable to sustain them, such a great artist was encountering tragic financial troubles. 1940 was the last time Augusta showed her art to the world. She later moved to upstate New York and worked as an art teacher for around 20 years before dying in New York City in 1962. Augusta Savage was gone but not forgotten. The Augusta Savage Institute of Visual Arts was created, as well as the Augusta Savage Cultural Arts Center. In 2009, author Alan Schroder wrote the book In Her Hands: The Story of Sculptor Augusta Savage. She was gifted with her hands, she was a powerful visionary, and tactical with her voice, all of which made a potent combination of a woman who endured much tragedy but always understood that it was up to her to create her world. To Ms. Augusta Savage, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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Dr. Runoko Rashidi is an anthropologist and historian with a major focus on what he calls the Global African Presence–that is, Africans outside of Africa before and after enslavement. He is the author or editor of twenty-two books, the most recent of which are My Global Journeys in Search of the African Presence, Assata-Garvey and Me: A Global African Journey for Children in 2017, and The Black Image in Antiquity in 2019. His other works include Black Star: The African Presence in Early Europe, published by Books of Africa in London in November 2011, and African Star over Asia: The Black Presence in the East, published by Books of Africa in London in November 2012 and revised and reprinted in April 2013, Uncovering the African Past: The Ivan Van Sertima Papers, published by Books of Africa in 2015. His other works include the African Presence in Early Asia, co-edited by Dr. Ivan Van Sertima. Four of Runoko’s works have been published in French.
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On April 23, 1964, Adalberta Monica Rey Gutierrez was born in Comunidad Marca, Bolivia. She lived with her mother Florentina Gutiérrez Barra and her step-father Simeón Rey Barra, both Simeón and Florentina worked in agriculture to provide for their family. Monica was a great student who consistently excelled in her schooling. At the age of eleven, Monica and her family moved to the city of La Paz, Bolivia, where she began attending a boarding school named Hogar y Colegio Ave María. Monica’s intellectual prowess helped her graduate from Hogar y Colegio Ave Maria as the first Afro-Bolivian to earn a diploma from the school. After graduating from boarding school, Monica continued her education by attending the Higher University of San Andrés. She went on to graduate from the university in 1997 with a bachelor’s degree in social communications, her thesis titled Saya as Mode of Communication and Cultural Expression in the Afro-Bolivian Community, was groundbreaking in that it was the first time someone presented thorough and accurate research about the Afro-Bolivian people. The thesis focused on a musical and dancing aspect of Afro-Bolivian culture called Saya. Saya is important to Afro-Bolivian culture and Monica used her thesis to articulate its importance to non-Afro-Bolivians.
In 1989, Monica became a leader within the Afro-Bolivian Saya Cultural Movement, which became an official organization that same year. The organization’s objective was to protect Afro-Bolivian people and culture while bringing Afro-Bolivian culture to the forefront and breaking the stereotypes. The Afro-Bolivian Saya Cultural Movement was able to apply enough pressure on the Bolivian government to change the way Afro-Bolivians were recognized. The terms Negrito, which means little black person, and Moreno, which means dark-colored people, were replaced with Afro-Bolivians. The people made sure they were recognized as both African and Bolivian. Afro-Bolivians had a victory but still more gains were needed. In 1994, Monica led a march for the recognition of Afro-Bolivian people on the grounds of the presidential palace because they needed their demands met. In 2001, Monica stepped down as the president of the Afro-Bolivian Saya Cultural Movement. In more groundbreaking work, Monica was able to work with an organization to conduct surveys on Afro-Bolivian people, studying them and acquire the needed information about the people for the first time.
The Inter-American Development Bank founded the research project, which led to the report titled Diagnostic of the Situation of the Black Community in Bolivia, which for the first time reported an estimate of the size of the Afro-Bolivian population, which was around 20,000. Monica followed the diagnostic report with a collaboration with Fundación Simón y Patiño in 1998, with the production of the booklet The Main Drum, a booklet that displayed the history and culture of Afro-Bolivian people. She became the General Directorate of Archaeology and Anthropology for a year before taking a position as a professor at the Franz Tamayo Private University. She taught at Franz Tamayo Private University for five years before taking a position as a professor at the Higher University of San Andrés. From 1990 to 2009 Monica served as an ambassador for Afro-Bolivian people, and in 2009 she became the Director-General of the Fight Against Racism within the Vice-Ministry of Decolonization. In 2010, She became the advisor to the Office of the Ministry of Productive Development and Plural Economy.
Because of the work Monica was doing, Afro-Bolivian people were allowed to participate in government for the first time in history. The National Council of Afro-Bolivians was formed and Monica served as the secretary. Afro-Bolivians were recognized as an individual ethnic group within the Bolivian census for the first time. Monica continued to achieve and is still achieving to this day. In 2014, she became the supranational deputy in the Chamber of Deputies of the administration of President Evo Morales, along with becoming the Director-General of Consumer Protection in the Ministry of Productive Development. In 2016, she introduced legislation to protect the human and civil rights of the Afro-Bolivian people. She dedicated her life’s work to helping her people and fighting racism. Afro-Bolivian people have more human rights and recognition because of the work of Monica Rey Gutierrez. To Adalberta Monica Rey Gutierrez, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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On April 17th, 1929, Marimba Ba was born in Dakar, Senegal, to parents who were educated and prosperous. Her mother died when she was a young girl, and her father became the Minister of Health for Senegal in 1956, he also worked as a civil servant before becoming the minister of health. Her grandfather was said to be a translator for the French during his time. After the death of her mother, Ba was raised by her father and maternal grandparents who made sure she received an adequate education. She was educated in the French traditions coupled with Quranic teachings; her grandparents made sure she learned Islamic values. Ba was an excellent student who at the age of fourteen earned the highest test scores for her age group. As Ba grew older, her thirst for knowledge and education was being challenged by traditional Islamic culture; her grandparents didn’t believe that a young woman should be educated because of their traditions, but Ba and her father held a different opinion about education. Ba’s father backed her decision to educate herself and helped her enroll in the Ecole Normale, or the Teacher Training College in the city of Rufisque, Senegal. She graduated from the training college in 1947 and became a teacher for twelve years.
During her time as a teacher, Ba met and married a man named Obeye Diop. The couple produced nine children before divorcing and Ba becoming a single mother of nine children. Ba’s health started to decline during the latter years of her teaching, so she transitioned her career to become an educational inspector for the Senegalese Regional Inspectorate of Teaching. Ba was regarded as one of Senegal’s most exceptional and prized teachers despite her retiring early from teaching. She was later honored for her teaching in 1977 when a school was founded in her name by Senegal’s President Leopold Senghor. Marimba Ba was a single mother raising nine children and able to provide for her family in a society where the men are usually the primary provider for a family. This was also where Ba’s activism for women’s and human rights began. European neocolonialism was continuously spreading throughout Africa and was a threat to the African nations that were newly independent or developed nations. Ba was at the forefront of the fight against neocolonialism and women’s rights in Senegal.
Her next move was publishing her first novel titled So Long A Letter in 1979, which became a critically acclaimed and Noma Award-winning novel. So Long A Letter was a novel that gave a history of the contributions of Senegalese women, it was also a peek into the life of Ba and other women in Senegal, and the challenges they faced to exist as women. She used her novels and community work to help fight discrimination against women, along with fighting the racist practices the French implemented in Senegal. In 1981, Marimba Ba died due to complications with cancer. Her second novel Scarlet Song was published in 1986, and similar to her first novel So Long A Letter, Scarlet Song was also a successful novel that focused on an interracial relationship in a traditional Senegalese society. Ba was just as adamant about restoring Senegalese culture before its French and Islamic influences, as she was about fighting discrimination against the women of Senegal. She was proud of her people and her culture.
Ba’s third novel, La Fonction politique des littératures africaines écrites, was focused on encouraging African people to be proud of who they are, where they are from, and their own cultural practices. She was unsatisfied with the way the women were treated, and unsatisfied with the forced influences of the French through colonialism. Marimba Ba is the first woman in Senegal to publish a novel, and it was fitting that her writings challenged the oppressive traditions of Senegal against its women, and even against its men due to colonial influences. Ba experienced hardships and successes. She was supported by her father early in her journey, which helped her to be intentional and fearless in her pursuit of freedom and liberation for her people. Marimba Ba, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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On May 2, 1879, Nannie Helen Burroughs was born in Orange, Virginia, to parents John and Jennie Burroughs, who were formerly enslaved. Mr. John Burroughs worked as a farmer and was also a Baptist Preacher. Nannie was the eldest of the Burroughs’ children; when she was five years old her father died forcing her family to move to Washington D.C. to live with her aunt Cordelia Mercer. The Burroughs family has a history of gaining skills to create income for survival, Burroughs and her mother were able to bring those skills with them to Washington D.C. to make a living. The Burroughs family took full advantage of the plethora of opportunities available for them in Washington D.C. Nannie was a bright and gifted student who shined in her academic studies. Her academic prowess continued throughout her schooling, helping her graduate with honors from M Street High School in Washington D.C. As a high school student, Burroughs was active within her school’s activities. She was the organizer of the Harriet Beecher Stowe Literary Society at M Street High School. She was also able to study business and domestic sciences giving her a number of skills to make a decent living. Burroughs’ fire and determination led her to meet two women who were active within the women’s suffrage movement that inspired her, Anna J. Cooper and Mary Church Terrell.
After graduating from high school in 1896, Burroughs sought a teaching job within the Washington D.C. school system; it is said that she didn’t get a teaching position because her skin was too dark. She was denied a teaching position by fellow blacks, but she didn’t allow that experience to stop her from teaching. In 1898, Burroughs moved to Louisville, Kentucky to work for the National Baptist Convention as an editorial secretary and bookkeeper for the Foreign Mission Board. Burroughs was one of the founding women of the Women’s Convention, which helped to serve the National Baptist Convention. She served with the Women’s Convention for forty-seven years and was the president for thirteen years. At the time, the National Baptist Convention was considered one of the largest African American organizations for black women. The National Baptist Convention received help from the National Association of Colored Women to serve black women in America, one of the outcomes of the partnership was the creation of the National Association of Wage Earners, an organization that was created to help black women earn better wages. Burroughs served as the president of the National Association of Wage Earners and Mary McLeod Bethune served as the Vice President of the organization. In addition to being a member of the National Association of Wage Earners and the National Baptist Convention, she served with the NAACP and around six other organizations.
Burroughs began working with Herbert Hoover around 1928 to help with black home and land ownership, she also gave her famous speech "How White and Colored Women Can Cooperate in Building a Christian Civilization," in 1938, at the Virginia Women's Missionary Union at Richmond. As a response to her not being able to teach in Washington D.C. and the continued discrimination black women faced in America at the time, Burroughs decided to open her own school for women called the National Training School in 1908. The school started in a farmhouse and gave women who could only take classes in the evening a chance to earn an education. Because Burroughs was such a great teacher, the word spread quickly increasing the popularity of the school, which meant the enrollment drastically increased. Burroughs was using the school to help prepare black women to become the greatest versions of themselves, and in turn, help all of Black America become the greatest version of its self. The school was shaped by their three B motto: the bible, the bath, and the broom. In addition to the skills the women were learning, Burroughs made sure there was an emphasis on teaching black history, so she created her own black history course for her students. Burroughs was preparing the black women of the National Training School to combat the wage labor problems affecting black women, and negative images of black people by the white media. The women were prepared to combat racism, elevate themselves and their race, and do whatever work needed to be done to be able to strive despite being victimized by racism.
Burroughs was a popular person because of her efforts to educate and equip black women to be self-sufficient and create a reasonable living, but she was seen as a villain by those who wanted black women to stay silent and only engage in domestic work. Her being rejected by the blacks within the Washington D.C. school system was a blessing in disguise. She was able to help many black women from poor backgrounds who would have been overlooked by the so-called black elite. Her grassroots efforts helped generations of black women find their callings outside of their homes. During the 1920s, Burroughs wrote and published two plays, The Slabtown District Convention and Where is My Wandering Boy Tonight? Nannie Hellen Burroughs died in 1961 of natural causes, leaving behind a legacy of service and commitment to her people. The National Training School was renamed the Nannie Hellen Burroughs School in 1964. During and after her life she was honored by receiving an honorary Master of Arts degree from Eckstein Norton University in 1907, May 10th of 1975 Nannie Helen Burroughs Day was declared in Washington D.C., and Nannie Helen Burroughs Avenue was named after her. To the incredible Ms. Nannie Helen Burroughs, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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On January 9th, 1945, Altheia Jones-LeCointe was born to parents Viola and Dunstan Jones in Port of Spain, Trinidad. Altheia was described as vibrant and exceptional as a young girl because she was intellectually gifted. Her college career started in the city of Barataria, where she attended St George’s College, and after earning her bachelor’s and master’s degrees she attended the University College London and earned her Ph.D. in biochemistry in 1965. As a college student political activism became a part of Altheia’s life. After earning her Ph.D. she became a teacher and a member of the Universal Coloured People’s Association (UCPA), an organization where she was one of the main organizers helping to fight against racism against African and Asian people. In 1968, the Universal Coloured People’s Association was led by a Nigerian novelist, playwright, and political activist, Obi Egbuna, but he was arrested and imprisoned because of his political activism with the UCPA and the British Black Panthers. Altheia soon assumed leadership roles within the UCPA and the British Black Panthers. Her leadership helped to revive both organizations and the energy behind the political movements.
As a visible leader of the Black British movements against racism and oppression of African and Asian people, Altheia was able to increase the memberships of both the UCPA and the British Black Panthers through recruitment, as well as, building relationships with fellow anti-racism activists in London. Darcus Howe and Altheia’s husband Eddie LeCointe were two of the most notable names recruited to join the British Black Panthers. Altheia’s reputation as an incredible talent with intellectual gifts followed her even as an activist; she successfully used her intelligence to debate for the Black Panther Youth League, and she also taught classes to the youth about anti-colonialism. She was a fearless person and a talented public speaker. Her impact helped to make black women in London fighting against racism more visible. Altheia also made sure black women were not overlooked, suppressed, or victims of sexual abuse as a leader of the British Black Panthers; it is said that anyone who harbored sexist views did not last long within the organization.
Under the leadership of Altheia Jones-LeCointe, the British Black Panthers’ membership increased by more than three thousand people, they created the Freedom News newspaper and created community programs similar to the Black Panthers in the United State. Altheia was never officially declared the de-facto leader of the British Black Panthers, but her leadership skills prevailed and helped the organization thrive. The Mangrove Restaurant was very popular within London’s black population, it was owned by a man named Frank Crichlow, and became the main meeting place of black political activists. It also became targeted by the London police because they wanted black people to stay in their place and just accept racism as the norm. After being harassed by the police Altheia and other activists organized a protest against the constant police raids of the Mangrove in 1970. There were over one-hundred and fifty protestors being opposed by more than 200 police officers. The protest became violent due to the police antagonizing the protestors, which led to Altheia and eight other figures being arrested. The Mangrove Nine was the name of Altheia and her eight other comrades who were arrested protesting police harassment.
Darcus Howe and Altheia Jones-LeCointe were the only two of the Mangrove Nine to represent themselves in court, they were determined to stand up for themselves and expose the police as a group of thugs who only harassed black people. After a long and arduous trial, the Mangrove Nine all walked free from being convicted of any crimes; the police were exposed for targeting the Mangrove Nine because of their race. At the time, the trial of the Mangrove Nine was the longest trial in British history, and an important trial exposing the racist history of the British against black resistance. The events of the Mangrove Nine are depicted in documentaries and television series’ such as The Mangrove Nine, Sky Atlantic, Small Axe, and How the Mangrove Nine Won. Altheia Jones- LeCointe’s story is not a widely told story, in fact, in the television series Sky Atlantic, Altheia was not depicted at all. She was a black-Caribbean woman who was proud of who she was and where she was from, she was also a leader, warrior, and nurturer for her people. She directly challenged the London police and their constant harassment of her and her people and came out victorious. To Dr. Altheia Jones-LeCointe, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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On March 23, 1942, Walter Anthony Rodney was born to parents Edward and Pauline Rodney in Georgetown, Guyana. Rodney’s family was considered working class, but he was still able to excel in his academics as a young boy. During high school he continued to excel which led him to graduate at the top of his Queen’s College class of 1960; Queen’s College was the top male high school in Guyana. Because of his academic excellence, he earned a scholarship to attend the University of the West Indies at Mona, Jamaica. In typical Walter Rodney fashion, he graduated at the top of his class with honors and a degree in history in 1963. His next step was attending the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of the West Indies, where at the age of twenty-four he was an honors student who earned his Ph.D. in African History. His dissertation “A History of the Upper Guinea Coast 1545 to 1800” was so exceptional that the Oxford University Press published it in 1970.
While earning his master’s and Ph.D., Rodney was a professor at the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania from 1966 to 1967. He served as a professor at the university for a second stint from 1967 to 1974, moving into his rise as a political activist. As a college student, his popularity was increasing because of his ability to speak to the public as well as his participation in the demonstrations against the Jamaican government. Rodney was meeting with human rights groups that represented the poor, Rastafarians, and anyone who was mistreated by the government. He even became an acquaintance and student to the Caribbean legend CLR James. Because of his affiliations, Rodney was being targeted by the Jamaican government and labeled as a problem. Rodney wanted the government to stop the oppression of its people. Black Power, Black Liberation, and Black Consciousness were the core of his messages. Using his academic prowess, he learned four additional languages to help him become more proficient and skilled at researching the history of his people.
In 1968, after returning to Jamaica from a conference in Montreal, Canada, Rodney was denied re-entry into Jamaica, which caused a riot that started in Kingston called “The Rodney Riots”. In 1969, he published his first book Groundings With My Brothers, a book that focuses on the decolonization of Africa and the Caribbean, and the promotion of Black Power. In 1968, Rodney would move to Cuba before moving back to Tanzania. While in Tanzania, he found work as a lecturer which allowed him to travel and witness the effects of European colonization on Africa and its people. In 1972, Walter Rodney published his groundbreaking book How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. A book that highlights the colonization and exploitation of Africa and its people by European colonies. Rodney used his platform to create intellectual spaces of discussion to help analyze their current conditions and create solutions to change them. These discussions coincided with the Sixth Pan-African Congress which was held in Tanzania in 1974. Also in 1974, Rodney moved back to Guyana after accepting a position as a professor at the University of Guyana. The offer was eventually rejected by the government of Guyana, or more specifically the People’s National Congress. To make a living, Rodney moved his family to the United States to teach and further his mission of ending the oppression of black people under the colonial powers.
In 1979, Rodney along with seven other people was arrested and charged with arson after being accused of burning down government offices. In 1981, he published two books, Marx in the Liberation of Africa and A History of the Guyanese Working People 1881 to 1905. His books shed light on the oppression of people because of race and class and gave information on overcoming differences in the name of unity and upliftment. The organization the Working People’s Alliance was formed in 1974, Rodney joined and eventually became a leader in the organization. They went on to successfully unite people from Africa and East India as a political party that challenged the Guyanese government. Because of his activism in the Caribbean, Africa, and the United States, Rodney was targeted by several governments and labeled as a trouble maker. He was often harassed by various police forces and dealt with constant threats to his life. In June of 1980, Walter Rodney was assassinated by a military officer using a remote control bomb. Rodney was thirty-Eight years old. Before his death, he left the world a great legacy of a freedom fighter who demanded liberation for his people. He was recognized and honored for his contributions to the world. Over 18 awards, foundations, and conferences were named in honor of Walter Rodney. He published twelve books and twenty-two other publications. He used his intelligence and bravery to give a voice to the people he witnessed being oppressed, his people. To the great Walter Rodney, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
J. A. Ward
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Juan Gualberto Gomez was born free of enslavement, on a sugar plantation to parents Fermin Gómez and Serafina Ferrer, in Matanzas, Cuba, on July 12, 1854. His parents were able to purchase his freedom before his birth, which allowed him to be able to learn to read and write. Because of the existence of slavery, most people of African descent were not able to read and write; Gomez’s parents used their money to enroll him into school at Our Lady of the Forsaken, in Havana, Cuba, to further his education. 1968 was the beginning of the “Ten Years” War, which was an uprising by Cuban planters and indigenous Cubans within the Cuban fight for independence against Spain. Racial tension was high and led to a brawl between Spanish and Cuban groups at a theater. Gomez was a part of the brawl, and because of his participation, he was targeted by the Spanish. His parents sent him to school in Paris, France with the help of their former plantation owner Catalina Gómez. Juan Gomez was going to Paris to learn how to become a carriage maker, a profession that was seen to be most suitable for a Cuban of African descent. While in Paris learning to become a carriage maker, Gomez’s teacher noticed his high level of intelligence and convinced Gomez’s parents to spend their money on him earning a formal education in engineering school.
In 1872, Gomez earned a job as a translator for Cuban independence leaders Francisco Vicente Aguilera and General Manuel de Quesada, who was looking for funding for the fight for Cuban independence. War and political strife broke out in France while Gomez was matriculating through his schooling, and because of the political climate, Gomez along with other Parisians began experiencing economic hardships. Two years later Gomez’s parents informed him that they could no longer support his education because of their economic downturn. Gomez decided to become self-sufficient. He began working full-time at the Journal and Theater Gazette Newspaper. Gomez working at the newspaper allowed him to merge his activism with his newfound love for journalism. He was able to create a persona as a journalist who is also a political activist, public speaker, and an important member of the Cuban fight for independence. In 1878, Gomez moved back to Cuba after a trip to Mexico to meet with Cuban abolitionist Nicolas Azcarate. During the meeting with Azacarte, he learned about the Cubans being defeated during the “Ten Years War,” so he moved back to help rejuvenate the Cuban fight for independence.
After returning to Cuba, Gomez bonded with a fellow Cuban in the fight for independence named Jose Marti. Gomez and Marti began planning for an uprising known as the “Little War”, an uprising that began in 1879. Also in 1879, Gomez started a newspaper called The Brotherhood. During the early phase of Gomez operating The Brotherhood, he was exiled to Spain for ten years because of his role in the “Little War”. During his ten years in Spain, Gomez was able to write for several newspapers, continuing to sharpen his journalism skills and continuing his part in the Cuban fight for independence. In 1890, Gomez was able to return to Cuba, where he and Marti picked up where they left off ten years ago. They began planning an uprising that went unnoticed by Spanish authorities, which led to a surprise attack on Spanish forces in February of 1895. The rebellion was not successful. It is believed that this rebellion and many of the other early rebellions were unsuccessful because of the lack of support from the people of Cuba. On February 28, 1895, Gomez was captured by the Spanish and sentenced to twenty years in prison, but he only actually served three years. After his release, Gomez moved to New York City and continued his fight for Cuban independence. Gomez along with Cuba’s Major General Calixto García traveled to Washington D.C. in 1898, to negotiate with the American government for funds to help the Cuban Liberation Army.
Between 1906 and 1909, Gomez was able to be a part of the committee that amended the Cuban Constitution and became a prominent voice speaking for Afro-Cubans on a national level against the racism Afro-Cubans were facing. Gomez and his fellow Cuban freedom fighters were not only fighting the physical domination by the Spanish, but they were also fighting the racial segregation the Spanish used against the Afro-Cubans. The idea was that Afro-Cubans were a threat to the whiteness or the Europeanness of the Spanish. Gomez became known as a dedicated freedom fighter for Afro-Cuban people, he defended Afro-Cubans from various backgrounds and professions and became the most recognizable face of the Afro-Cuban fight for independence.
As the memories of their fight for independence passed, Gomez and other Afro-Cuban leaders were beginning to be forgotten. Racial discrimination was increasing and impacting Afro-Cubans’ quality of life. In retaliation to the continued discrimination and political blackballing, the Afro-Cubans created their political party called the Independent Colored Party, a party that was created without Gomez. Ironically he opposed the party because he wanted a Cuba free of racial separation, but this party was created to deal with the current reality the Cubans were facing. In 1901, Gomez became a writer that used his writings to speak out against the U.S. interactions in Cuba looking to make Cuba a U.S. colony. Gomez died in 1933 at the age of 78 as an honored Cuban journalist and freedom fighter. An annual journalism prize was named after Gomez to honor the legacy he built during his continued fight for Afro-Cuban independence. Juan Gualberto Gomez, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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In 1807, the Slave Trade Act was passed which prohibited slavery within the British Empire, this was the first legal document that eventually led to the total abolishment of slavery. The act specifically prohibited the transportation of enslaved Africans within the British Empire. In 1833, the Slavery Abolition Act was passed which made slavery illegal within the British Empire. Though the acts were passed, a system of apprenticeship was created for all enslaved people over the age of six, the apprentices were still enslaved and used as a labor force for the enslavers. The apprenticeships were officially ended in 1848 granting the enslaved Africans a brief moment of freedom. The Apprenticeships came to an end as a result of the continued protest by the enslaved African people in the Danish West Indies. After the enslaved Africans were freed, they were forced to sign contracts that basically reenslaved them to the plantations they were previously bound to.
The protest started on the Island of Saint Croix on October 1st of 1878, or “Contract Day”, as the African people gathered to protest the horrible working conditions they were forced to endure. Fredricksted was the site of the protest on the Island of Saint Croix. The gathering began as a peaceful protest against the inhumane treatment the African people faced, soon rumors of an African person being critically injured or killed by a Danish soldier spread quickly leading to the African people throwing stones at the soldiers. The soldiers opened fire upon the Africans before fencing themselves in a fort for protection. The Africans attempted to take over the fort but were unsuccessful,l so they began taking over and burning down around fifty plantations, homes, businesses, and more. Queen Mary, Queen Agnes, and Queen Mathilda were three of the leaders of the Rebellion. The rebellion is known as “The Fireburn” because the queens helped to burn down more than half of the city of Frederiksted. The Three Queens inspired their fellow African people to gain their freedom by any means.
The Danish fought the African people for two weeks to suppress the rebellion. The African people fought long and hard behind the leadership of the Three Queens, many lives were lost but the rebels were able to burn over nine-hundred acres of plantation land before the Danish suppressed the rebellion killing over one-hundred Africans. The Danish quickly established a rigged court system designed to determine the fate of over four-hundred rebels who were captured. Of the four-hundred Africans captured, twelve of them were killed by a firing squad, thirty-four of them were sentenced to hard labor for an extended amount of time, five of the rebels including the Three Queens were sentenced to a life of hard work in prison. A year after the rebellion the Danish forced the African people to sign new contracts that did not improve the working conditions for the Africans.
In 1882, Queen Mary was around the age of forty when she was shipped to a prison in Copenhagen, Denmark, before being sent back to Christiansted to serve her prison sentence until her death. Queen Mary was the most well-known of the Three Queens, she is said to be linked to every rebellion on the island of Saint Croix and was adamant about the rebels being committed to gaining their freedom. There isn’t much information about Queen Mathilda and Queen Agnes, we do know Queen Mathilda was only twenty-one years old when she joined the rebellion, she along with Queen Mary was the mother of three children. In 2005, the memory of the Three Queens was captured in the form of a memorial fountain called the “Three Queens Fountain” that overlooks Charlotte Amalie City on the Island of St. Thomas. These three remarkable women valued their lives, their freedom, and their people. They were willing to leave their families to fight for their freedom and the freedom of their people. To the Three Rebel Queens of the Fire Burn, Queen Mary, Queen Mathilda, and Queen Agnes, we proudly stand on your shoulders.
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